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RD in the New Cosmetic Age



Novel raw materials are helping to drive researchers to develop high-tech socmetics that perform a variety of functions



Published November 9, 2005
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In the race to generate more sales, there have been enormous efforts on the part of cosmetic houses to offer new innovative products to consumers. At the same time, consumers have shown a willingness to pay premier prices for products that are truly elegant and effective. From a cosmetic company’s perspective, these expanding demands for a better product present both rich opportunities and difficult challenges.

While sales volumes have shifted into hyper-gear, in many instances higher-performance products require significantly more quality control during the production process. During the past decade, an unprecedented explosion of new high-tech cosmetics has helped fuel the continuing stream of product innovations that are revolutionizing both the beauty and fashion industries. Developing new technology to produce consumer-friendly products is by no means a small feat and the process is made even more complex when the legal ramifications of the use of new ingredients is taken into account.

As living standards rise worldwide, so too does cosmetic usage. Today’s consumer demands unique, high quality, state-of-the-art and safe products with multiple performance claims at a very reasonable price. The global personal care market that includes skin care, makeup, hair care, fragrance and toiletry products is estimated to be $125 billion. In order to develop new and better products, R&D, manufacturers and suppliers are making a concerted effort and spending more money to discover new ingredients and new techniques to manufacture products efficiently. In this regard, Coty has been at the forefront and has made available all the necessary resources to accomplish these goals.

In cosmetic sciences, two types of technologies are always under consideration: delivery of cosmetic actives on the site in intact form via a carrier. New and improved cosmetic raw materials to accentuate the finished product, both practically and aesthetically.

In the first category, liposomes have been around for quite some time and have performed miracles as high tech cosmetic delivery systems. Liposomes continue to be popular despite many newer technologies such as biovectors and nanoparticles, which have been introduced in recent months. Among the latest, the following technologies are worthy of recognition because of their novelty and sophistication.

Microcapsules are used primarily to facilitate drug release on the skin site. This also ensures active stability as well as reduced side effects.

Much of the encapsulation research today involves the study of substances called polymers, chemically manufactured or gel-like materials that are being used to surround actives for later release after penetration of the stratum. Microcapsules have been in use for many years in pharmaceuticals for sustained and controlled-release or target release of a drug.

The size of a capsule (0.20mm-900mm) and the materials used to construct the capsule are of paramount importance. The materials that are used to construct the wall of a capsule are of a natural origin, being close in structure to the skin’s own lipid and protein chemistry. This eases their safe and quick transfer through the upper epidermis. While developing a controlled release mechanism, it is necessary that the cosmetic active be fully dissolved in a safe solvent, which acts as a reservoir within the capsule wall. In addition, the capsule itself must be suspended in a safe gel structure having the same solute/solvent as the capsule, ensuring equilibrium between the solute solution inside the capsule and the surrounding media. This is necessary for any topical skin care product intended to be used as a delivery system. In order to ensure greater stability as well as delivery of a variety of compounds, a larger capsule enclosing many microcapsules of penetrable sizes has been developed.

The macro-capsule will break with a friction while being placed on the skin and on bursting, release micro-sized capsules into the skin. With this technological advancement, mixing and matching variable cosmetic actives such as emollients and vitamins can be introduced effectively on the outer and in a few upper epidermis layers.

Other mechanisms used to deliver cosmetic actives have been materials such as crossed-linked polymers (usually substituted acrylates). An ideal bead is spherical, has openings that allow movement of pre-loaded materials and acts like a sponge. The actives are loaded during the polymerization processes. As a result, a sponge-type structure with very high internal surface areas, from 200 to 500 m2/g, is created. This helps to create the sorption and desorption mechanisms. These beads are substantially lipophilic in nature. Besides being used to absorb oil, they serve as carriers of the oil-soluble active ingredients. These beads have been successfully used to deliver prolonged fragrance effects in antiperspirant products. Similarly they are best suited as an oil controller for acne-prone or excessive oily skin. These beads are available in many forms and can be empty or preloaded with cosmetic actives. Three of the most important are:

• A micro shell with inside web structures having channels with varying pore openings.

• The same as above; however, the individual shell is covered with an outer membrane covering, having a multitude of openings.

• Made up of a central nano-particles core, extending a web structure of channels continuing with many openings.

The polymeric membrane attaches itself to the mildly charged negative skin and helps the sustained release mechanism that moves onto the diffusion path of the skin. These spheres are suitable for time-released skin and hair care actives.


A New Look at Liposomes
Capisphere(1), a new liposome, has a “concentric construction.” Capispheres carry a positive charge, allowing the incorporation of a cationic polymer (guar hydroxypropyltrimonium) into the capsule wall. Such positively charged capsules bind naturally to the negatively charged keratin of the hair shaft. The capsule remains bound to the hair shaft, even after rinsing and drying. It is 1m in size.

Secospheres(2) are zinc and zinc glycyrrhetinate (anti-inflammatory and sebum control) are also available in liposomes in a concentric construction. This construction ensures the timed release mechanism. It is their concentric inside that distinguishes them from regular liposomes.

Retinol Molecular Film Fluid(3) has a unique delivery system for retinol in a molecular film, a very thin monolayer functional film that spreads very well on the epidermis favoring cutaneous absorption of the retinol molecule. The retinol molecule film was achieved by combining cyclomethicone, dimethiconol, soybean oil, octyl cocoate, sphingolipids and retinol at 12,000 p.s.i. under microfluidizing conditions. This oil soluble molecular film is very occlusive and also shows a significant moisturizing profile under TEWL techniques. The occlusive film ensures cutaneous absorption of retinol and at the same time prolongs shelf life. The retinol contents can vary as per request.

Cosmetic patches have been around for many years in cosmetics and have found a renewed interest as a transdermal drug delivery (TDD) system for pharmaceuticals. Drug patches deliver drugs into the dermis and beyond, whereas, cosmetic patches allow only cosmetic actives to penetrate the epidermis.

Cosmetic patches have been used commercially for acne and blemish reduction. They consist of a piece of soft cloth, tissue or adhesive tape impregnated with cosmetic actives (emollients, moisturizers or papers sprayed with foundation pigments or encapsulated fragrances). These are packaged individually. A patch is placed on the affected area of the skin for some time in order to be effective. This concept involves soaking or bombarding the localized skin with highly concentrated solution of emollients and moisturizers including cosmetic actives. The solvent/liquid mixture must be cooling, refreshing, pleasant and non-irritating.

Impregnated tissue or paper must be gently rubbed onto the face in order to refurbish the makeup. An adhesive- type cosmetic patch can be used for the slow release of actives overnight. Other types provide temporary relief for extreme skin dryness. This concept can be utilized effectively on a localized area of the skin to apply a cream, liquid or mud mask containing treatment actives.


Cosmetic Packaging
Delivery of cosmetics is as important as the product itself. There are two interesting packaging concepts. Airspray has created Airspray F2 finger pump foamer, a mechanical foamer computer engineered to allow a precise mixture of liquid and air at the touch of a button. Corpack’s Twin-Pack is an innovative package for lip and nail products. This two-in-one product combines a lipstick with other cosmetic products such as lip gloss or lip lacquer, or unconventional combinations, such as nail enamel and a fragrance.

The term “Better living through chemistry” is no longer an attractive phrase. Many consumers are beginning to question whether all the technological and industrial advances that have been made are worth the damage done to our health, our environment and the quality of our lives. We do have a natural protection system, but it does not work all the time. Nature is simultaneously referred to as a state of perfection and also perceived as flawed. Therefore, science steps in where nature fails.

Today, “natural” is the word that befits our lifestyles. For the naturals, we incorporate herbs and botanicals in our cosmetic products. Herbs are truly a gift from nature. Although these materials have been used for centuries, they still hold many secrets that await discovery. The addition of herb extracts, essential oils and botanicals have been on the rise in skin care and color foundations due to greater desire on the part of the consumer to use natural ingredients.

Many plants improve the appearance of aging skin. These actives are known to strengthen the skin’s immune functions, protect from free radicals, prevent inflammation, repair and act as an energizer. Since modern cosmetics are often constructed around plant chemistry, it is incumbent on us to investigate plants which nature has made available for the benefit of mankind. Ten years ago, natural ingredients were widely used and remain used at the same pace today. In fact their inclusion in cosmetics has become necessary due to updated knowledge, safety and beneficial chemistry. The fundamentals of plant chemistry essentially involves the following:

1. Carbohydrates

2. Glycosides

3. Alkaloids

4. Proteins

5. Lipids (fat, fixed oils, waxes, sterols, and phospholipids)

6. Volatile oils

7. Plant exudates (resins, oleoresins, gum resins, balsams)

Carbohydrates (starches and their derivatives) are used in pressed powder or eyeshadow as filler and to impart a pleasant feel. Starches and their derivatives are used in a wide range of cosmetic products as viscosity modifiers including mascaras and liquid foundations. Cellulose and its derivatives are used as viscosity modifiers, film formers and emulsion stabilizers in liquid foundation or mascaras. One cellulose derivative (nitrocellulose), a major component of nail polish, is being used as an efficient film former and helps the adhesion of polish to the nails. Sucrose is being used as a pressing aid to pressed powders, foundations and eyeshadows. At the same time an existing series of natural and mild nonionic emulsifiers from carbohydrates are esters of sucrose and fatty acids. These are available as monoesters, diesters and combinations thereof, with de- creasing water solubility, along with a corresponding decrease in HLB value. The examples include Crodesta F10, F50, F110, F110 and SL40. Crodesta SL40 is a mild, high foaming, nonionic surfactant.(4) Glucose ethoxylation, (Glucam E series), and glucose propoxylation (Glucam P) series are well known water-soluble emollient humectants.(5) Ethoxylated (20 moles) methyl glucose sesquistearate (HLB 15)/ methyl glucose sesquistearate (HLB 6) in a one to two ratio has been found to be an excellent oil-in-water emulsifier.(6) A natural o/w emulsifier Polyglyceryl-3-methylglucose distearate, and a hydrophilic emollient ester sucrose cocoate are two excellent examples.(7) Sucrose cocoate shows good moisturizing results with an alkaline surfactant system.

A linear, unbranched polysaccharide from oat composed of 4-O-linked b-D-glucopyranosyl units (70%) and 3-O-linked glucopyranosyl units (30%), oat b-glucan,(8) has shown extraordinary results in vitro for collagen production, fibroblast stimulation and protection against UVA/UVB damage. It has also been found that it improves tensile strength of hair and significantly reduced breakage caused by bleaching. There is also some data available that it helps to strengthen the skin’s immune system.

Another plant-derived carbohydrate compound of excellence, Konjac Mannan, MEP, SP series, is being promoted as a gel strengthener, film former and moisturizer.(9) This carbohydrate compound was obtained from the dried tuber of the konjac plant, native to Asia. It consists of high molecular weight glucomannen consisting of mannose and glucose in a molar ratio of 8:5 with ß1-4 linkages and a molecular weight greater than 300,000 Daltons.

Carbohydrates are various neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that contain large quantities of hydroxyl groups. The simplest carbohydrates also contain either an aldehyde moiety (polyhydroxyaldehydes) or a ketone moiety (polyhydroxyketones). All carbohydrates are classified as monosaccharides, oligosaccharides or polysaccharides. Anywhere from two to 10 monosaccharide units, linked by glycosidic bonds, make up an oligosaccharide. Polysaccharides are much larger, containing hundreds of monosaccharide units. The presence of the hydroxyl groups allows carbohydrates to interact with the aqueous environment and to participate in hydrogen bonding, both within and between chains. Derivatives of the carbohydrates can contain nitrogen, phosphates and sulfur compounds.

Carbohydrates can also combine with lipids to form glycolipids or with protein to form glycoproteins. Extensin is a good example of plant-derived glycoprotein.(10) The hydroxpyroline composition and structure of Extensin is similar to animal-derived collagen. Therefore, it is a genuine replacement for the animal-derived collagen. Another example of glycoprotein has been sericin, which was isolated from silk.(11) A new lip therapy ingredient, palmitoyl oligopeptide, recorded excellent results moisturizing and fullness subjective testing.(12)

Monosaccharides, (glucose and fructose), disaccharides (sucrose, lactose in milk sugar) and polysaccharides have large molecules of chains of monoscaccharides. The naturally-occurring polysaccharides are starches, celluloses, glycogen, and inulin. The commercially available inulin, Lifiderm, has been used as moisturizer.(13) Polysaccharides are far less soluble in water compared to common monosaccharides or disaccharides. Pectin consists of a backbone derived from carbohydrates with side chains of various monosaccharides. They are commonly found in vegetables and fruits, especially citrus fruit and apples. Pectin forms a low residue gel. It is used in colored cosmetics because of its compatibility with the iron oxide pigments.

Glycosides are a compound containing a carbohydrate (glycone) residue attached by an acetyl linkage at carbon atom 1 to a non-carbohydrate residue (aglycone). The chemical nature of the aglycone group determines the basis of their classification and may include—tannins, aldehyde group, anthra- quinone group, saponin group, alcohol group, lactones group, cyanophore group, isothiocynate group, phenol group, flavonol group and cardio active group.

The most important groups from a cosmetic standpoint are saponins, flavanols and tannins. Saponins are a group of amorphous, colloidal glycosides. They are water-soluble and produce froth when the aqueous solution is agitated. The saponins are widely distributed in the botanicals and used as natural emulsifiers in cosmetics. Licorice and the yucca are the classical source of saponins. Saponin glycosides are divided into neutral or acid types based on the chemical structure of their aglycons (sapogenins). The so-called neutral saponins are derivatives of steroids with spiroketal side chains. The acid saponins possess triterpenoid structures.

The main pathway leading to both types of sapogenins is similar and involves the head-to-tail coupling of acetate units (Fig 1 in the print version). However, a branch occurs after the formation of the triterpenoid hydrocarbon, squalene, which leads to steroids in one direction and to cyclic triterpenoids in the other.(14)

Licorice extract is widely used in cosmetics as tyrosinase inhibitor (skin whitener) and for its powerful antioxidant actions. This antioxidant activity is comparable to the enzyme superoxide dismutase, found in some vegetables, mushrooms, soy beans and spinach. The most commonly used ingredients from licorice are being used in current cosmetic products—glycyrrhetinic acid and its potassium salt and zinc salts, dipotassium glycyrrhizinate as an anti-inflammatory, soothing action for very sensitive skin. Zinc glycyrrhetinate has shown promising results, in vitro, on acne-prone skin.(15) Tannins are naturally-occurring plant polyphenols. Tannin can be extracted with hot water from the bark of chestnut, nutgall, oak, certain sumac leaves, hemlock, coffee, tea and walnuts. Tannin acts as a potential metal ion chelator, a protein precipitant, and as a biological antioxidant. Tannin is also used to make inks. Its use in cosmetics has been limited and requires further investigation.

Flavonoids are a class of water-soluble plant pigments with varied chemical structures. They are present in fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds. The majority of the flavonoids found have been chiefly the glycosides of flavones and flavonols. They are also found in high concentrations in some botanicals, especially ginkgo biloba, St. John’s wort and pycnogenol. The major flavonoid categories are flavonols, flavones, catechins, isoflavanones and anthocyanins. Some of the best-known flavonoids, such as genistein in soy, quercetin glucoside in onions and quercetin rutinoside in tea, can be considered subcategories.

Wine and bilberry are rich in anthocyanidins while flavanones are found in citrus. The catechins glycoside occurs in cherries. The flavonoids glycosides are important in cosmetics for their powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials. The antioxidant action involves all the major free radicals—superoxide anions, hydroxyl radicals and exogenous radicals. The best example is the widely studied silybin, the main flavanolignan of the extract silymarin. Flavonoid rutin, derived from buckwheat, protects the blood vessels from fragility and improves the microcirculation at the sub-epidermal level. Similarly, arbutin flavonoids, derived from the leaves of the ericaceae and rosaceae, are used in cosmetics as a natural whitening agent. Soy isoflavonese may fight skin cancer, according to studies. Grape seed extract containing flavonoids (PCAs), an anti-oxidant, is comparable to soy extract containing isoflavones. The biggest advantage of including flavonoids in cosmetics has been a substantial increase in blood circulation at the sub-epidermal level and an improvement of intra-cellular membrane exchanges of micronutrients. They also improve venous insufficiency and capillary fragility. This will increase the oxygen supply to the cells and thereby overall improvement of skin’s texture and appearance.

Alkaloids are a group of nitrogen-containing bases and are the active principles of many plants. Most of them are drugs. Only a few, like caffeine, are derived from purines or pyrimidines. The large majority is produced from amino acids. Caffeine and theophylline (designated as xanthine), have been the most prominent alkaloids used in cosmetics, especially in anti-cellulite products.

Proteins/amino acids and peptides are the primary component of all plants and animals. They play an important role in the fundamental processes of tissue formation and regeneration. All proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Sulfur is also generally present, frequently phosphorus, and other elements; e.g., iodine, copper, iron, and occasionally zinc. The fundamental units of proteins are a-amino acids and about 20 of them are known to take part in protein formation. The amino acids link together via peptide bonds to form a polymer. The number of amino acid molecules so combined varies widely among different proteins, ranging from as few as a hundred up to tens of thousands. In fact proteins are macromolecules that differ primarily from each other in the number, sequences and kinds of amino acid residues present in the polymer chains.

Proteins are classified by composition or structure. In fact today’s classification is related to solubility, coagulation, conjugation, denaturalization, and hydrolysis characteristics. There are simple proteins that on hydrolysis yield only alpha-amino acids or their derivatives. These simple proteins include albumins, globulins, prolamines, albuminoids, histones and protamines. The second class has been conjugated proteins which are more complex and includes phosphoproteins, nucleoproteins, glycoproteins, chromo-proteins, lipoproteins and metallic-proteins. The third category is derived proteins that include, primarily, proteins, metallic-proteins, albuminates and secondary, proteoses, peptones and peptides.

Proteins are ampholytes, exhibiting amphoteric behavior owing to the presence of both positively- and negatively-charged side chain groups distributed along the length of the molecule and at its ends. The amino acid composition of a protein determines the relative number and type of charged groups and the isoelectric point. Protein will have a net positive charge below the isoelectric point, whereas above the isoelectric point the protein will have a net negative charge. When considering the cosmetic application of proteins, keep in mind that hair and skin are themselves composed of keratin protein, which shows an isoelectric point of approximately pH 4.5.

The cationic character of a protein determines the ionic bonding (substantiveness) between protein and hair or skin. Therefore, cosmetically available proteins can only be truly cationic if their isoelectric point falls below 4.5. Thus the majority of commercial proteins are not truly cationic because their isoelectric points are in the range pH 4.0-6.0. One way of creating a cationic polymer is to covalently graft a strongly cationic quaternary amino group onto the protein.

Proteins, amino acids and peptides are widely incorporated into hair care and skin care products to provide excellent conditioning, moisturizing and filmogenic actions. However, in cosmetics, proteins from animal sources are not welcome and have been replaced with proteins of marine and vegetable origin. On skin and hair, the hy- drolyzed or whole protein molecule exhibits extraordinary water binding and texturizing properties that impart better flexibility and body to hair and improve manageability. It also causes a reduction in split ends on damaged hair and induces superior gloss and easy combability. Amino acids are hygroscopic in nature and are mostly used in skin care products for their water-binding properties, as well as their improved elasticity, silky feel and skin-firming effects. Lower molecular weight enzyme-hydrolysates and amino acids are used as moisturizers and may penetrate the stratum corneum, epidermis and some dermal layers. Higher molecular weight proteins, however, do not penetrate significantly into the epidermis. Instead, they remain on the surface of the stratum corneum. They also provide skin tightening or smoothing action. The natural wheat protein, hydrolyzed wheat protein, hydrolyzed whole oats, hydrolyzed wheat protein polysiloxane copolymer and hydrolyzed wheat protein polyvinylpyrrolidone copolymer are just a few of the high molecular weight proteins that are used in cosmetics for their beneficial actions. One of the newest proteins, derived from apricot kernel, is a naturally-derived cocktail of amino acids.16


Lipids
Lipids are a diverse group of biological substances which occur in plants and animals and are made up primarily of non-polar groups. Due to their non-polar character, lipids typically dissolve more readily in non-polar solvents (acetone, ether, chloroform and benzene) rather than in water. This solubility characteristic is extremely important in cells because lipids tend to associate into non-polar groups and barriers, as the cell membranes that form boundaries between and within cells. Lipids are stored and used in cells as an energy source. Other lipids form parts of cellular regulatory mechanisms.

Lipids link covalently with carbohydrates to form glycolipids and with proteins to form lipoproteins. Lipids are important in cosmetics for their use as emollients, moisturizers, viscosity modifiers, body builders, binders, emulsifiers for pleasant feel and above all as formula stabilizers. There are five major classes of lipids:

• Neutral lipids

• Phospholipids

• Sterols

• Waxes

• Glycolipids

Neutral lipids are a combination of fatty acids with the alcohol glycerol. Fatty acids are long, unbranched chains of carbon atoms with attached hydrogen and other groups. A carboxyl (-COOH) group at one end gives the molecule its acidic properties. Most naturally-occurring fatty acids contain an even number of carbon atoms in their backbone chains. Although a few with odd numbers are found in all organisms, they make up only a minor fraction of the total. Stearic acid, palmitic acid, myristic acid, (saturated), and oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid (unsaturated), are common in cosmetics.

The primary lipids of biological membranes are phospholipids, a group of phosphate-containing molecules with structures related to triglycerides. Phosphatidycholine (lecithin) is a major lipid component of cellular membranes. Lecithin is used to make liposomes and has been used in skin care for many years to improve feel, stabilize a formula and add emolliency. The major raw material suppliers have offered many new and improved modifications. The latest addition has been biomimetic phospholipid complexes.17 Derived from specially selected vegetable oils, they offer unique functionality such as topical delivery and skin conditioning effects.

Sterols are derived from plants and are alcohols containing the cyclopentaphenanthrene (steroid) nucleus. Cholesterol is widely-used in cosmetics as a w/o emulsifier and the material holds substantial moisture on the skin. New avocado sterols consist of 80% active component sterols.18 The material has been described as a superior phytosterol with lubricious emollient action on the skin. It can be a perfect substitute for animal-derived lanolin. Squalene, a sterol precursor found in plants, is also used widely in cosmetics as an emollient.

Waxes are esters of high molecular weight, monohydric alcohols and high molecular weight fatty acids. Beeswax and vegetable derivatives are used in cosmetics. Silicone modified waxes are a new tool to improve feel and stability. Glycolipids (Cerebrosides) are substances which on hydrolysis yield fatty acids, galactose (sugar) and the nitrogenous compound sphingosine.

Ceramides belong to the class consisting of fatty acids and the amino acid serine, or nitrogenous containing compound sphingosine. In the skin, ceramides may be found free or included in more complex lipids such as sphingomyelin or various glycosphingolipids in the inter-cellular spaces. Ceramide mimics have been created in the laboratory through biotech paths from the plant’s proteins and fatty acids, especially from the wheat. In cosmetics, ceramides are used for replenishing moisture due to their water-binding capacity and help make the skin soft and supple.

Volatile oils or essential oils are found in various plant organs and tissues. They usually constitute the savory- and odor-forming principles of the plants in which they exist. They may also pre-exist in the tissues and become active on contact with water. Volatile oils are sometimes formed through the destructive distillation as oils of tar and amber. The following groups of compounds form volatile oils: hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters, aldehydes, ketones, phenols and phenol ethers, lactones and various nitrogen and sulfur organic compounds. The hydrocarbons of chief importance are the terpenes (C10H16) and the sesquiterpenes (C15H24).

Sometimes hydrocarbons other than terpene, such as n-heptane in the volatile oil of oleoresin from Pinus Sabiniana and Pinus Jeffreyi, are formed. The terpenes and sesquiterpene are essentially water insoluble, but soluble in alcohol and fixed oils. Many of the essential oils, however, owe their character and their value to components other than hydrocarbons. They include organic acids (acetic, benzoic, cinnamic and phenylacetic); alcohols (benzyl alcohol, borneol, cinnamyl alcohol, citronellol, geraniol, linalool, menthol, phenylethyl alcohol and terpineol); aldehydes (anisic aldehyde, cinnamic aldehyde, benzaldehyde, citral, piperonal or heliotropin, salicylic aldehyde and vanillin); ketones (carvones, camphor, thujone, pulegone, etc; esters such as bornyl acetate, methyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, geranyl acetate and linalyl acetate); phenols (thymol, carvacrol and chavicol); phenol ethers (anethol, eugenol and safrol) and many other more complex compounds such as coumarin and indol.

Many of these ingredients are found in flower oils and are responsible for the flower’s fragrance. Many of the constituents of volatile oils have been synthesized and are used extensively to create modern perfumes. The present trend regarding the use of naturally-derived volatile oils has been toward the more caring, humanistic approach also known as Holistic Aroma Therapy (HAT), which involves the relaxation of mind, body and emotions. One of the newest materials is ginger extract, which consists of essential oils zingiberol, zingerberene, sesquiphellandren and curcumen.19 The extract is suitable for skin toning and other astringent-type bath and after-bath products.

Plant exudates include naturally-occurring balsams, gums, oleoresins and resins. The resins are solid or semi-solid exudation from plants. They are insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol and often soften under heat. Gum arabic and tragacanth are widely used in cosmetics as binders or formula stabilizers.

Seaweeds and algae are rich natural sources of essential amino acids, polyphenol glycosides, minerals, hydrosoluble vitamins and trace elements. In color cosmetics, some iron oxide pigments can be replaced with ground green, red, blue, brown and yellow algae. All these materials have strong antioxidant action.

In the color cosmetic category, new technology has resulted in products that are free from the heavy, greasy feel often associated with long-lasting properties. The addition of vitamins, sunscreens, minerals, emollients and moisturizers along with other anti-aging ingredients in a makeup product is not just a temporary beauty fix but should be seen as a long-term strategy.

In the lipcolor category, improved performance has changed the way women view how a lipstick should look and feel. Transfer-resistant compositions have had a big impact on sales volume. Other advancements include the use of sunscreens and specially designed lip moisturizers and silicone polymers to help better pigment adhesion. This trend will continue to improve and the consumer will be able to find better moisturizing, smooth coloring, transfer-resistant, long-lasting and treatment-oriented lipstick in the very near future.

Emulsifiers are among the most ubiquitous of all cosmetic ingredients, and are among the most important. Every emulsion includes an anionic, cationic or nonionic surfactant. Today’s elegant emulsions are possible due to the cosmetic chemist's in-depth knowledge of how to properly make an emulsion. The emulsifiers have made possible the successful union of water and oil. It has advanced the making of a simple water/glycerin solution into an elegant opaque cream or lotion with the incorporation of mixtures of oils and/or esters. In the cosmetic sciences, the push toward the development of more efficient elegant feeling emulsion has inspired the supplier to come up with more creative emulsifiers. The latest innovation includes Olive 900 from olive oil.20 This naturally-derived emulsifier creates a liquid crystal network within the emulsion system.

Polymers are widely used in cosmetics; however, a new entry, polyphosphorylcholine glycol acrylate,21 delivers 50% more water binding than hyaluronic acid and prevents moisture loss by forming a barrier film on the skin.


Nail Care
Innovative color and fashion trends remain the driver for sales. The upswings in nail care technology (especially in the treatment area) prompted the consumer to spend more money to buy expensive brands. Nail grooming and protection have been the area in which women have always been most interested. The addition of moisturizers, vitamins and new polymers that resist chipping have always been popular. More manufacturers are adding conditioning keratin and aloe moisturizers too. Pigments that change color with the body temperature and light are also available.


Hair Care
In the high tech area of shampoo, the biggest breakthrough has been the addition of encapsulated vitamins and sunscreens, in an alkaline surfactant-based environment. The addition of positively charged, quaternized panthenol in shampoos and hair sprays has been another advancement worth recognizing. The inclusion of sunscreens (benzophenone-3 and octyl methoxycinnamate) in order to protect the hair from color fading and UV damage is also worth mentioning.

Today’s shampoos are made with mild surfactants and clean the hair thoroughly. Keratin, silk amino acids, proteins (wheat and milk) and dimethicone are just a few of the common ingredients found in shampoo and conditioner formulas.

Bath and body products are becoming more popular as well. Pleasantly-fragranced body gel wash, body sprays, lotion moisturizers and luxurious body creams have become a new source of pleasure for the ladies relaxing in their home bathtub. Calgon, Healing Garden and Adidas from Coty are among the best selling brands.


Conclusion
The future belongs to products that are safe, innovative, high performance and, above all, elegant feeling. The aging population is seeking moisturizers that show measurable results for minimal cost. The new anti-aging ingredients continue to emerge as one’s best hope to conserve youth. The newly-developed combatants that claim to protect the from UV rays and pollutants are continuously in demand. In the all-natural category, an old material with fluorescence, “umbelliferone” from anise, is once again making news. There has been greater emphasis on particle size distribution and homogeneity in non-chemical sunscreens (titanium dioxide and zinc oxide) from the various suppliers. On the other hand manufacturers are putting more R&D efforts on the emulsion stabilization and higher SPF numbers.

Products based on natural ingredients have always been popular with consumers. Whether functional, isolated chemicals or biologically-targeted ones, they are of significant value in beauty care. Both ensure that the consumer is getting more for her money. For a very successful product, four criteria are important: breakthrough packaging, creative advertising performance and cost. Chief among all, the advertisement should be powerful enough to give a very strong message. It should also be attractive, persuasive, and memorable.


References
1. Barnet Products Corp., Englewood Cliffs. NJ.
2. Ibid
3. Lipotec c/o CenterChem, Norwalk, CT.
4. Croda Inc., Parsippany, NJ.
5. Ibid
6. Amerchol Corp., Edison, NJ.
7. Goldschmidt Chemical Corp., Hopewell, VA.
8. Brooks Industries Inc., South Plainfield, NJ.
9. GFN c/o Biosil Technology, Paterson, NJ.
10. Provital S.A. c/o CenterChem, Norwalk, CT.
11. Pentaform c/o CenterChem, Norwalk, CT.
12. Croda/Sederma, Century Drive, Parsippany, NJ.
13. Bioetica Inc. Portland, ME.
14. www. Friedi.com
15. International Sourcing Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
16. Croda, Inc., Century Drive, Parsippany, NJ.
17. Uniqema, Silverside Road, Wilmington, DE.
18. Croda Inc., Century Drive, Parsippany, NJ.
19. Ibid
20. B & T, c/o Presperse, Inc., Piscataway, NJ.
21. Croda Inc., Parsippany, NJ.



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