SCC Meets in New York
Annual scientific meeting and technology showcase draws hundreds to the New York Hilton Hotel.
Tom Branna - Editorial Director
Navin Geria - Contributing Editor
Despite worsening economic news and talks of layoffs within the personal care industry, cosmetic chemists from around the world attended the Society of Cosmetic Chemists (SCC) Annual Scientific Meeting and Technology Showcase, which was held at Hilton Hotel in New York City, Dec. 11-12, 2008. The annual event included scientific sessions on a range of topics including multicultural skin and hair care, in- vitro alternatives, sustainability, personal care delivery systems and polymer/surfactant interactions.
The scientific meeting opened with a session devoted to multicultural skin care technology that was moderated by Zoe Diana Draelos, MD, of Dermatology Consulting Services.
The first speaker, Hitoshi Masaki of Nikkol Group Cosmos Technical Center, Tokyo, explained how pyridoxine (VB6) plays a critical role in epidermal functioning. Researchers found that VB6 provides a specific up-regulation of profilaggrin mRNA/protein in keratinocytes. According to Dr. Masaki, this up-regulation makes VB6 a good candidate for skin moisturizing agents because it enhances natural moisturizing factor. Furthermore, the Nikkol team found that VB6-IP, a new derivative, greatly accelerates filaggrin production and improves the water contact of the skin surface.
David J. Moore of International Specialty Products (ISP) explained how Confocal Raman Spectroscopy could be used to study active ingredient penetration into the stratum corneum. Dr. Moore’s team studied active delivery and permeation from topical lamellar lipid gel formulations containing 1-2% cosmetic actives (such as salicylic acid, arbutin or tocopheryl phosphate). At the same time, ISP researchers looked at active delivery via sequential tape stripping, which he called a traditional, but more destructive technique.
Dr. Draelos performed double-duty during the session. Besides serving as moderator, she also gave a presentation on differences in skin by ethnic group. In her opening remarks, she noted that, regardless of color, skin is very much the same, but subtle differences make it very difficult to develop products. Specifically, differences in melanin are the biggest reason for these formulation problems. She noted that several genes determine skin color, including the recently discovered gene SLC24A5, which accounts for the average difference of 30 melanin units between European and African skin. Dr. Draelos explained that there are actually two types of melanin at work in the skin—eumelanin and pheomelanin. Eume-lanin is brown to black while pheomelanin is yellow to red. She warned, however, that melanin production could also be produced due to injury.
“Tanning is a negative response,” she asserted. “It is not a sign of skin health.”
She noted, too, that the number of melanocytes, typically 1000-2000/mm2 of skin, does not differ between skin color, but their ability to produce and transfer melanin is different. Dr. Draelos also noted that a widely-used skin lightener, hydroquinone, is actually toxic to melanocytes.
Dr. Draelos contends that the best way to decrease pigment is to introduce anti-inflammatories to the skin.
“Eliminate inflammation and you eliminate pigmentation,” she told the audience.
The final speaker of the morning session, Buddy D. Ratner of the University of Washington Engineered Biomaterials (UWEB) at the University of Washington, Seattle, explained how tissue engineering would revolutionize medicine and cosmetic repair and enhancement during the next decade. He explained how a “scaffold” permits cell attachment and growth and shapes the tissue. These scaffolds are seeded with cells and are then conditioned in a bioreactor. Once completed, the scaffold and cells are surgically implanted on the patient. Next, blood vessels are formed (a process called angiogenesis) along with nerve growth (innervation).
Dr. Ratner warned, however, that there are many pitfalls to tissue engineering. For instance, the tissue engineered construct must heal into the host and appropriately integrate. Other issues include sterilization, storage, regulatory concerns and business models.
In-Vitro Test Methods
Thursday’s afternoon program included two concurrent sessions; one on in-vitro alternatives moderated by Mindy S. Goldstein Ph.D., Estée Lauder, and another on multicultural hair care technology moderated by Colleen Rocafort of Ciba.
The in-vitro session opened with a presentation by Denise Gabriele of Sederma. Ms. Gabriele explained how sugar molecules, called glycokines, improve tissular cohesion as measured with an Aeroflexmeter. This non-invasive, non-touch device, patented by Sederma, consists of a precisely mounted and positionable nozzle that sends compressed air to the skin and a laser beam to follow and record the deformation of the skin surface via CCD and appropriate computer software. A cream containing the oligosaccharides was tested against the vehicle, with twice daily application for two months. In addition to the Aeroflexmeter-based measurements, the Sederma team also investigated skin elasticity, moisturization, skin surface smoothness and cutaneous barrier (TEWL) using standard techniques such as a Corneometer and MoistureMeter-D. According to Ms. Gabriele, the Aeroflexmeter enabled Sederma researchers to obtain images from which new parameters such as tissue cohesion and resilience. Furthermore, a parallel study on 65 persons of various age groups confirmed that these parameters correlate well with age.
Another member of the Croda/ Sederma team, Karl Lintner, PhD., described in-vitro studies of cellular senescence based on Stress Induced Premature Senescence (SIPS). These SIPS methods include monolayer cell culture studies, fibroblast lifespan and DNA arrays to measure gene activity, as well as ex vivo studies on human skin explants. Dr. Lintner advised that although SIPS obtained by culturing cells with peroxide or glucocorticoids or UV can be useful to screen for anti-aging activity based on antioxidant or enzyme inhibitory activity, a more realistic approach to senescence study and slowdown is obtained with longer term cell culture studies involving proliferation rates, marker proteins and telomere analysis.
David Boudier of Silab looked at the papillary dermis (PD), explaining that the matrix proteins of the PD are responsible for the major biomechanical properties of the skin. Mr. Boudier explained that deterioration of oxytalan fibers begins at 30-40 years of age and gradually disappears under the dermal epidermal junction. Moreover, the expression of collagens by papillary fibroblasts is also impaired.
“Whatever the measured site,” he said, “skin loses elasticity with age.”
As a result, Silab developed an in-vitro model of intrinsic aging of the PD to study expression profiles of different matrix proteins. Using this in-vitro model of senescent papillary fibroblasts, Silab found that a treatment based on a Cyperus esculentis tuber extract restores a normal expression profile.
Few topics are hotter than sun care right now, as the Food and Drug Administration and the industry debate the new FDA guidelines for assessing UVA protection of sunscreens in-vitro. Olga Dueva-Koganov of Ciba detailed new in-vitro test conditions for the evaluation of sunscreen UVA protection that closely follows the requirements published in the new FDA guidelines. Dr. Dueva-Koganov’s team used a Ci65A Xenon Weather-O-Meter with a Right Light inner/Quartz outer filter combination from Atlas. According to the speaker, the device provides an unparalleled match to natural sunlight. Using a standard application dose of 2mg/cm2 on Vitro Skin N-19, test articles, including avobenzone, octocrylene, homosalate, octisalate, oxybenzone, octinoxate, bemotrizinol and bisoctrizole, were applied. A test article containing broad-spectrum actives bisoctrizole and bemotrizinol (not approved for use in the U.S.), in conjuction with avobenzone and octocrylene, achieved the highest UVA rating.
The session’s final speaker, Gabriele Vielhaber of Symrise, detailed the benefits of using a novel ex-vivo pig skin organ culture model (PSOCM) for use in efficacy and safety testing. Dr. Vielhaber called the model an ethical, versatile and economical alternative to animal testing. PSOCM shows reliable biological responsiveness for up to 21 days of culture, thus enabling long-term experiments. It is suitable for testing the efficacy of a variety of cosmetic ingredients. So far, results obtained in assessing skin irritation and skin sensitization are very promising, but Dr. Vielhaber conceded more validation is necessary.
“So far, there is no validated in-vitro test method accepted for skin sensitization,” she concluded.
Friday’s program included a session on sustainability and social responsibility, moderated by Robert Bianchini of Johnson & Johnson. It included a keynote presentation by Linda J. Fisher, chief sustainability officer at E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company, which was sponsored by Ruger Chemical. According to Ms. Fisher, DuPont’s sustainability journey began in 1989 with the introduction of a plan to reduce the company’s environmental footprint. Most recently, the company issued 2015 Sustainability Goals, which include reducing its environmental footprint via greenhouse gas emissions, water conservation, fleet fuel efficiency, air carcinogens and independent verification of site programs.
DuPont is also serving the market with environmentally smart opportunities from R&D efforts, launching products that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, increasing revenues from non-depletable resources and creating products to protect people, she said.
|Case Western’s Dr. Kevin Cooper receives the deNavarre Medal Award from Dr. Mary Matsui of Estée Lauder.
Cooper Wins deNavarre Award
Kevin D. Cooper, MD, professor and chairman of the department of dermatology and professor of oncology and pathology at the Case School of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals Case Medical Center, received the Maison G. deNavarre Award, the Society’s highest honor, during the annual awards luncheon. In receiving the award, Dr. Cooper was lauded for his significant contributions in the biology of ultraviolet-induced immune suppression. The Society noted that his work was critical in the design of sunscreens with photoprotection beyond sunburn protection. Dr. Cooper was also recognized for his research on UV radiation including studies on antigen presenting cells and psoriatic skin.
In addition to the Maison G. deNavarre Award, other awards presented during the luncheon included:
• Shaw Mudge Award (Best Paper at 2008 Annual Scientific Seminar), sponsored by Ciba: Shaow B. Lin, PhD; Stepahie Postiaux and Joanna Newton, PhD, for their paper entitled “Vesicular Delivery Systems—from Phospholipids to Silicones for Targeted Skin Sites.
• Allan B. Black Award (Best Paper on Makeup Technology presented at either the previous Annual Scientific Meeting or Seminar or published in the Journal of Cosmetic Science), sponsored by Presperse: Leila S. Song, PhD; Gabriel Uzunian; Betty F. Aucar and James B. Carroll Jr. PhD, for their paper entitled “Complex Effect Pigments: Innovative Solutions for Ethnic Color Cosmetics.”
• Hans A. Schaeffer Award (Most Innovative Paper presented at either the previous Annual Scientific Meeting or Seminar), sponsored by Arch Personal Care Products: Michael Daley, PhD and David W. Koenig, PhD, for their paper entitled “Removal of Microbial Pathogens from Skin Using Magnets.”
• Joseph P. Ciaudelli Award (Best Article submitted to the Journal of Cosmetic Science on the subject of Hair Care Technology), sponsored by Croda Inc: Karin Keis, PhD, Craig L. Huemmer and Yash K. Kamath, PhD., for their paper entitled “Effect of Oil Films on Moisture Vapor Absorption on Human Hair.”
Colleen Rocafort Honored
The award presentations continued during Friday’s luncheon when Colleen Rocafort of Ciba received the Merit Award for her service and leadership to the Society. As a member of the SCC for more than 25 years, Ms. Rocafort has held a number of positions, including president of the Society, editor of the Journal, a member of the Committee on Scientific Affairs and as acontinuing education program instructor.
Finally, Linda Rhein of Bayer Health Care received a certificate of appreciation for her service as the 62nd president of the Society. During her address, Dr. Rhein noted that, despite economic hardships, the Society continued to thrive, as membership reached 4,199. Ongoing initiatives include archiving the Journal of Cosmetic Science and the creation of more university and student programs, which will provide students with information on the cosmetic industry, including schools offering programs and career opportunities. She noted that three schools—the University of Southern Mississippi, University of Cincinnati and Fairleigh Dickinson University—have already established successful research and training programs in cosmetic science.
Society of Cosmetic Chemists Honors Des Goddard
In December 2007, the industry was saddened by the death of E. Desmond Goddard, an expert in the area of polymer, colloid and surface science. At the time of his death, Dr. Goddard had been a member of the Society for more than 30 years and had been honored with numerous awards including the SCC Literature Award (1993) and the Maison G. deNavarre Award (1994).
As a tribute to Dr. Goddard, the Society devoted an entire program in his memory on polymers and surfactants. Wil Hemker of The University of Akron Research Foundation and Linda Rhein of Bayer Health Care moderated the sessions.
In a paper devoted to the science of polymer surfactant interaction, Susan Jordan from The Dow Chemical Company pointed out that, polymer/surfactant interactions could be fine-tuned for specific performance with different types of hair. By changing the polymer structure, which also included charge density, its hydrophobicity character, and molecular weight, specific conditioning properties could be customized. When molecular weight was significantly increased, it improved wet combing, which was further improved when charge density was lowered. Silicone deposition was enhanced when either molecular weight or charge density were increased. The higher molecular weight polymer improves bridging of the silicone in the coacervate to assist deposition while the increased charge reduced looping on the surface to direct the silicone to the hair and also hold hair in its place. Polyquaternium 67 (hydrophobe modified polyquaternium 10) further improved both wet combing and also silicone deposition.
During the afternoon session, James Gruber discussed work conducted at Amerchol Corp. in collaboration with Dr. Goddard. Dr. Gruber is currently the director of research at Arch Personal Care exploring new technologies relative to hair and skin. A four- year collaboration between Drs. Gruber and Goddard resulted in co-editing of a book “Principles of Polymer Science and Technology in Personal Care” published by Marcel Dekker. The work involved using fluoroscence to study both silicone deposition and cationic polymer deposition. Dr. Gruber added that originally using radio-labeled polyquaternium-10, Dr. Goddard elicited and identified the important factors that influence the direct deposition of the cationic polymer on the hair including such things as cationic charge, molecular weight and surfactant type. The process of coacervation has evolved as the most basic mechanism for controlling deposition of colloidal suspensions in shampoo products. He further added that Dr. Goddard also demonstrated studies that were conducted to look at the rheological influence of a macro-coacervate made from polyquaternium-10 and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), in order to better understand the mechanisms of deposition. Dr. Goddard’s pioneering work with PQ-10 further supported by Dr. Gruber’s efforts to examine the properties of PQ-10 has formed the corner stone of the two-in-one conditioning shampoos exemplified by well known brands such as Pantene, Head and Shoulder, Fructis by L’Oréal, Johnson & Johnson Baby shampoo.
James McCaulley of Eastman Chemical Company explained the properties and applications of water dispersible sulfopolyesters. These synthetic, anionic polymers function as fixatives in hair styling products, dispersants in pigmented cosmetics, secondary emulsifiers in creams and lotions and water-resistant film formers in sunscreens. The physical properties of sulfoployester films can easily be modified with cosmetically acceptable plasticizers such as glycerin, triacetin and triethyl citrate. The extended family of water-dispersible sulfopolyesters offers a wide latitude in customizing polymer properties to satisfy requirements of many cosmetic applications.
|The Allan B. Black Award presentation (l-r): Betty Aucar (recipient), Jeanette Black (sponsor), Leila Song (recipient), Stuart Axelrod (sponsor) and Gabriel Uzunian (recipient).
The authors also examined the effect of salt concentration on interactions between oppositely charged polymer and surfactant, relative to polymer charge substitution, over a range of surfactant concentrations encompassing the CMC and substantially greater than the CMC. The authors concluded that the interactions between low charge substituted polyquaternium-10 and oppositely charged surfactant are an interaction of salt which differs depending upon concentration regime of surfactant and polymer, whereas the interaction between high charge substituted polyquaternium-10 and oppositely charged surfactant persist and extend over a broader compositional range in the presence of salt up to 130mm.