Online Exclusives

Viva La Différence!

By Tom Branna, Editorial Director | September 9, 2013

How consumers do laundry depends greatly on where they live.

Getting clothes clean means something very different to someone in Kansas City compared to say, someone in Mexico City; which, in turn, is different from how someone does laundry in Phuket versus someone in Frankfurt. Euromonitor International puts the global market for cleaning products (2012) at $147 billion (retail), with laundry care products accounting for more than 50% of sales, said Peter Smallwood, principal, Chemical Associates, who was a featured speaker at CESIO’s 9th World Surfactant Congress and Business Convention, which was held in June in Barcelona (see also p. 50 Happi, August 2013). Smallwood noted that despite all the talk about enzymes and other additives, surfactants still account for 25-75% of the material value of a cleaning product.

But how much consumers spend on cleaning product really depends on where they live, personal wealth, clothing type and ambient conditions. Annual per capita spend on household cleaners ranges from $10 in China to more than $90 in Japan, according to Smallwood, who cited Euromonitor data.

In the developed world, washing is a chore. With their busy lifestyles, consumers look for good performance involving the minimum of effect. Laundry is done by machine and not heavily soiled. There are differences in the washing habits from country to country and region to region, as US water is moderately soft and water tends to be hard in Europe.

In North America, most homes have soft water. Detergents tend not to contain bleaches, liquids dominate, and there is a slow shift to high-efficiency washers, both front and top loaders. Volume wash water is 30-60 liters, total volume water used is typically 120 liters, detergent quantity is 1-2g/l, (30g/kg washing), total wash time ranges from 8-18 minutes, and wash water temperature can range from 10-55°C.

“There is a slow move to high efficiency washers,” Smallwood added.

In Northern Europe, wash machines rely on a horizontal front entry basket with reversing/pause action, so clothes are lifted out of water and dropped back in. Volume of wash water is 8-15 liters, detergent quantity ranges from 5-10g/l, total wash time is 50-60 minutes and wash temperature is 40-60°C. Interestingly, while traditional powder detergents contain bleach, liquids do not.

“Europeans are are more reluctant to use liquids,” explained Smallwood. “(But) there is a rise in the use of (peroxide) bleach boosters.”

He further went on to say there is an increasing use of unit doses in Northern Europe, and Southern Europeans who wash at lower temperatures are more likely to use hypochloride bleach boosters.

And while European and US consumers are using more unit dose detergents every day, Smallwood noted that half of the world washes laundry by hand; this washing is  carried out in ambient temperatures in either still (tub or bucket) or flowing water. Clothing is soaked, scrubbed, squeezed or beaten to drive dirt out. The wash water is used multiple times. Consumers in emerging markets have a preference for bar/cake soaps that are used to scrub clothing and as well as other types of cleaning. In recent years, these bars have been blended with LAS. While bars containing enzymes have been introduced in China, Smallwood noted that there’s been slow shift from bars to fragranced powders in emerging markets.

Overall, however, powders are the most popular laundry detergent form, regardless if clothes are washed by hand or by machine. Citing Euromonitor data, Smallwood noted that powders account for 70% of detergent use in China, followed by liquids (20%) and bars (10%). In India, however, liquids are not available, so powders hold 75% of the market and bars, 25%. Russia’s market is segmented by powders (90%), bar (7%) and liquid (3%).

In some emerging markets, such as China and Russia, washing machines are not always trusted to get clothes clean. In other countries, hand washing is considered a social event and part of the daily routine. The used wash water can be used in household cleaning.

But regardless of their geographic location, there are several global cleaning trends that influence why consumers purchase particular cleaning products and include cost, efficiency, convenience, appearance/fragrance and environmental sustainability, according to Smallwood. Environmental issues include biodegradability (linear alkyl benzene sulfonates replaced branched dodecylbenzene sulfonates), toxicity (alkyl phenol ethoxylates were replaced by alkyl alcohol ethoxylates) and eutrophication (phosphate builders are being phased out).

Sustainability issues include a general move toward ingredients made from renewable resources. Smallwood pointed out that petrochemical-derived ethylene oxide has been replaced by glucoside and that Solvay is making EO from fermented ethanol. Also available are sophorolipid surfactants produced by yeast fermentation.

Finally, more research is underway to reduce washing temperatures. Unfortunately, many fats melt at 40°C, but surfactants are more soluble at higher temperatures and many chemical processes work better at higher temperatures. Some solutions to these problems include using branched hydrophobes that have higher solubility yet retain their surface activity; use of enzymes that work at lower temperatures; increasing the antibacterial activity of detergents and increasing the activity of bleach at lower temperatures.

“Surfactants are a key component of cleaning products and cleaning products are a major market for surfactants,” concluded Smallwood. “But developments in the cleaning product industry, such as changing formulation preferences and demand for better performance at lower temperatures, are driving the requirement for new types of surfactants.”
  • Supply-Side Innovations

    Supply-Side Innovations

    Tom Branna, Editorial Director||March 1, 2017
    Raw material suppliers roll up their sleeves and roll out their new products for the global cleaning industry.

  • New Faces in Familiar Places

    New Faces in Familiar Places

    Tom Branna, Editorial Director||March 1, 2017
    The American Cleaning Institute officially welcomed its new president.

  • Special Delivery

    Special Delivery

    Tom Branna, Editorial Director||March 1, 2017
    UV protection is important, but what good is that sunscreen if consumers won’t apply it?

  • The Good, The Bad Can Get Ugly

    The Good, The Bad Can Get Ugly

    March 28, 2017
    If you are what you eat, you may really be in trouble!

  • It’s Magic!

    It’s Magic!

    Melissa Meisel, Associate Editor||March 20, 2017
    Argan oil-infused ‘Moroccan’ lip care brand jumps from WholeFoods into CVS.

  • On the Cutler Edge

    On the Cutler Edge

    Melissa Meisel, Associate Editor||March 13, 2017
    Top brand source at Redken forecasts up-to-the-minute hair trends.

  • Take The Hint

    Take The Hint

    Christine Esposito, Associate Editor||March 13, 2017
    Water brand forays into sun protection by capitalizing on scent and experience.

  • What’s Up with Brexit?

    What’s Up with Brexit?

    March 9, 2017
    During In-Cosmetics, industry experts from the CTPA will weigh in on what’s ahead for the beauty industry.

  • Shine On

    Shine On

    Christine Esposito, Associate Editor||March 6, 2017
    Jelmar’s Tarn-X tarnish remover celebrates 50th anniversary.

  • How We Clean

    How We Clean

    Tom Branna, Editorial Director||March 6, 2017
    Consumers describe what makes them tick and what ticks them off about household cleaning products.

  • Care for Your Hair

    Care for Your Hair

    Melissa Meisel, Associate Editor||February 27, 2017
    Salon expert Richard Jay talks about protecting tresses.

  • Fit for Fitness

    Fit for Fitness

    Christine Esposito, Associate Editor||February 21, 2017
    Kinx Active is a new brand targeting women who want beauty products that can stand up to their fitness routines.

  • Cargo Says Aloha To Spring/Summer

    Cargo Says Aloha To Spring/Summer

    Christine Esposito, Associate Editor||February 13, 2017
    Cargo Cosmetics has rolled out its new Spring/Summer collection with Hawiianan singer Anuhea.

  • Cashing In on Coconuts

    Cashing In on Coconuts

    Melissa Meisel, Associate Editor||February 6, 2017
    Organic to Green is making waves for its new oils and eco-friendly packaging.

  • Monday Morning Quarterback

    Monday Morning Quarterback

    Christine Esposito, Associate Editor||February 6, 2017
    Super Bowl commercials are big business. Let’s look at some of personal and household care brands that bought spots this year

  • Catch These Rising Stars of Beauty

    Catch These Rising Stars of Beauty

    Nancy Jeffries, Contributing Editor||February 6, 2017
    Who won what at Fashion Group International's Rising Star awards show

  • Coast To Coast

    Coast To Coast

    Melissa Meisel, Associate Editor||January 30, 2017
    Natural hand wash brand is aiming to make an environmental difference.

  • Switch It Up

    Switch It Up

    Christine Esposito, Associate Editor||January 30, 2017
    Chicago startup seeks to shake up the AP/deo category with a new launch that meshes sustainability, style and scent.

  • Skin of Color Society Connects Experts

    Skin of Color Society Connects Experts

    Melissa Meisel, Associate Editor||January 16, 2017
    Dermatologists from across the nation share information and ideas.

  • Erasa

    Erasa's New Evangelist(a)

    January 9, 2017
    Impressed by the performance of its hero SKU, supermodel Linda Evangelista joins the company in a hand's on role.

  • Discourse on Disclosure

    Discourse on Disclosure

    Tom Branna, Editorial Director||January 6, 2017
    Transparency impacts the cleaning industry.

  • The Top Stories of 2016

    The Top Stories of 2016

    December 26, 2016
    The companies and topics that grabbed headlines and your attention this year.

  • Positive Influence

    Positive Influence

    December 19, 2016
    Co-founder Elizabeth Scherle talks about her growing consumer review platform, top beauty products and more.

  • Pro Pigments

    Pro Pigments

    Melissa Meisel, Associate Editor||December 12, 2016
    Makeup brand Kryloan has a rich history in the industry and now open doors at a NYC flagship.

  • Fast Forward

    Fast Forward

    Melissa Meisel, Associate Editor||December 12, 2016
    Doug Cooper of IP Brands is thinking ahead when it comes to beauty trends.

  • Olivia Care Pays It Forward

    Olivia Care Pays It Forward

    Christine Esposito, Associate Editor||December 12, 2016
    Seeking post-election unity, a small natural personal care company hopes to cause a big wave of giving.

  • Patent Activity: Colgate-Palmolive

    Patent Activity: Colgate-Palmolive

    December 6, 2016
    New oral care compositions, the use of radish root ferment filtrate in a cleanser and more.

  • Sparkle & Shine

    Sparkle & Shine

    Melissa Meisel, Associate Editor||November 21, 2016
    Glam packaging and upscale scent combos are big at Yankee Candle for Holiday 2016.