After a fierce recession that mauled even the normally resistant skin care market in the U.S. and Western Europe, emerging markets, including those in South America, have become a cornerstone in every company’s growth strategy. It was appropriate then, for the International Federation of Societies of Cosmetic Chemists (IFSCC) to hold its 26th Congress in Buenos Aires, Argentina. More than 900 chemists from around the world flocked to the Argentine capital from Sept. 20-23 to learn more about the latest advances in skin, hair and color cosmetics chemistry.
In addition, the Congress included an exhibition of more than 50 suppliers to the industry and more than 100 posters.
The Congress got underway with a keynote lecture by Robert Y. Lochhead of The Institute of Formulation Science (IFS) and the University of Southern Mississippi. Too often, he told the audience, cosmetic chemists abandon formulations with plenty of potential only because there is not enough time to obtain enough information on the systems in question. At the same time, new raw materials are discarded because they did not perform adequately in “drop-in” tests. Finally, when new natural ingredients are discovered, there is not enough time to evaluate their performance.
The British Clock Tower just outside the Sheraton Convention Center in Buenos Aires.
Lochhead maintained that this high-throughput approach would diversify the material base of formulation, as well as allow rapid screening of ecological consequences of the use and disposal of the resulting formulated products.
The Congress opened on Tuesday, Sept. 21 with a keynote lecture by Elizabeth Jares-Erijman of the Argentine Research Council. Despite the questions surrounding nanoparticles (see Harvey Fishman’s Gleams & Notions column on p. 34 in this issue), the speaker insisted that “small” could be beautiful. She noted that nanotechnology can already be found in nature and that it was used 4000 years ago to create lead sulfide nanocrystals.
The Congress attracted more than 900 cosmetic chemists from around the world.
Sahelia Anzali of Merck explained how her team used Affymetrix oligonucleotide microassays to determine that application of flavone-8-acetic acid (FAA) down-regulates certain matrix metalloproteases, including MMP3, 9 and 10. This down- regulation of MMPs results in the increase of collagen fibrils. As a result, Merck researchers concluded that FAA has applications in anti-aging cosmetics.
Temperature clearly exerts a significant effect on the barrier function of the skin, according to Naoka Kida of Pola Chemical Industries. Furthermore, Kida suggested that when transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is activated, the skin barrier is strengthened.
Kida concluded that dry skin resulting from exposure to cold environments may be remedied through the application of TRPV4-activating skin care products, or even by warming the skin.
Takuo Yuki of Kanebo Cosmetics proposed that toll-like receptors (TLRs) control the skin’s tight junction functions as an innate immune response in order to maintain cutaneous permeability barrier homeostasis. According to results, Yuki’s team found that tight junctions are functionally enhanced by the invasion of foreign substances into the epidermis through the stratum corneum.
Georges Langrand of Exsymol proposed that oxothiazolidine (OTZ) is an efficient photoinduced-reactive oxygen species scavenger that releases taurine when reacted with hydrogen peroxide and a hydroxyl radical. According to the speaker, in situ formation of taurine contributes to photoprotection, since taurine uptake by keratinocytes is induced by UVB radiation and counteracts its detrimental effects.
David Boudier, University of Lyon, showed how normal human reticular fibroblasts are more likely to contract lattices in comparison to normal human papillary fibroblasts. Boudier and his team were excited by this finding because it confirms the heterogeneity of these two fibroblast populations, but in particular, they show, in a different light, some biological markers potentially involved in the capacity of NHRF to contract and confer on the dermis its resistance properties.
More Silicone Solutions from Dow Corning
Wide ranges of silicone solutions were on display in the Dow Corning booth at the 26th IFSCC Congress. According to Stewart Long, market strategy leader, skin care, Dow Corning came out of the recession very strong.
“Things are picking up again in the industry and we are well-placed to support growth with a strong presence in all Latin American countries and China,” said Long. “We are truly global and have good contacts with customers. We can meet the needs of large and small companies.”
The newest launch, MQ 1640 (INCI: Trimethylsiloxy silicate (and) polypropyl silsequioxane), has applications in color cosmetics, skin care, sun care and hair care products. According to Dow Corning, MQ-1640 Flake Resin is a unique combination of MQ and T propyl silicone resin. This combination of resin technologies has been especially developed to provide both excellent transfer and wash resistance combined with a flexible film and comfort of wear. Even with stretching and washing, the film formed by Dow Corning MQ-1640 Flake Resin remained smooth and undamaged. In sunscreens, Dow Corning MQ-1640 Flake Resin enhanced the SPF wash off resistance.
According to Isabelle Van Reeth, skin care technology leader, the new resin gives formulators a lot of patent freedom to formulate a wide array of products that demand long-lasting, film-forming benefits.
“Silicone emulsifiers have a lot of potential,” she told Happi, noting that Dow Corning is currently evaluating its potential in skin delivery systems. “There’s a lot more to discover.”
Randy Wickett of the University of Cincinnati explained how those with genotype AA/GA appear to be more prone to intense neurosensory response, more prone to develop irritant contact dermatitis as a result of repeated hand hygiene and less responsive to lotion treatment. According to Wickett, TNF –alpha polymorphism -308 plays a role in both neurosensory irritation and irritant contact dermatitis.
Satoshi Onoue of Kosé provided details on the development of a new method for the evaluation of tropoelastin (TE) deposition and investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in photoaged skin including abnormal accumulation of tropoelastin induced by UVA irradiation. Specifically, the researchers found that a superoxide radical is a candidate for the morphological changes and increased TE deposition induced by UVA irradiation in human skin fibroblast cells. The superoxide radical promotes TE deposition and contributes in vivo the abnormal accumulation of TE deposition during photoaging.
Exsymol researchers are using recombinant green fluorescent proteins (eGFP) to evaluate cosmetic efficacy, explained Melanie Mollet of Exsymol. These materials stress cells to reveal intra-cellular protein oxidative damage, which provides an original methodology for testing cytoprotective compounds.
Skin with an ordered stratum corneum (SC) is considered to be more radiant. According to Pola, about 80% of women in Japan do not have ordered stratum corneum. To remedy the situation, Pola researchers have developed a cosmetic product that is said to realistically reproduce the effect of the ordered arrays of stratum corneum, according to Masae Iida. The new cosmetic includes several organic multilayer powders with refractive indices close to that of SC. Makeup containing the new powder scattered more light and the skin was judged to be more radiant.
Elizabeth Jares-Erijman and Johann Wiechers
Hot iron treatments reduce the amount and integrity of keratin in hair, signaling thermal degradation of hair protein. With more consumers using these styling tools, formulators must develop polymers that protect hair from heat. According to Ray Rigoletto of International Specialty Products, one such material is hydrophobically modified cationic polymer polyquaternium-55, which provides 79% anti-breakage effect.
Another keynote lecture, delivered by Satoshi Amano of Shiseido, detailed the benefits of enhancing basement membrane (BM) repair mechanisms in order to prevent accelerated photoaging. Shiseido researchers found that repeated damage to the BM destabilizes the skin, accelerating the aging process. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and urinary plasminogen activator are increased in UV-irradiated skin. Using skin equivalent models, Shiseido found that MMP and plasmin cause BM damage and that the reconstruction of BM is enhanced by inhibiting proteinases, as well as by increasing synthesis of BM components.
A Fluid Keynote
Gillian Eccleston of the University of Strathclyde
Rheology plays an important role in nearly every cosmetic formulation. Keynote lecturer Gillian Eccleston of the University of Strathclyde provided insight into the microstructure and properties of fluid and semisolid lotions and creams.
Eccleston insisted that knowledge of the relationship between the physico-chemical properties of creams and lotions and their microstructure is essential to optimize manufacture, provide elegance and optimize the delivery of a cosmetic agent to the skin.
“In rheology, you must use common sense, and not just science,” she warned the audience. “Remember it’s a plot not a dot.”
At the same time, she cautioned that the carrier that delivers material to the skin is not the actual delivery system. Instead, the delivery system is the thin film left behind after evaporation. Therefore, the degree of evaporation has an impact on delivery.
Eccleston reviewed various structuring methods of aqueous creams including polymers, clays and gel networks, noting that some of today’s formulas contain all three, which can lead to processing nightmares.
“Formulators and processing engineers must collaborate to understand these systems,” she concluded.
Upcoming IFSCC Events
The 26th Congress has concluded, but several Societies are working on conferences and congresses for the years ahead. Next up is the 2011 IFSCC Conference, scheduled for Nov. 1-3 in Bangkok, Thailand. The theme of the conference is “3E: Effective, Economic and Ecological Cosmetics.” The deadline for abstracts is Dec. 31, 2010.
More info: email, firstname.lastname@example.org or www.ifscc2011.com
The 27th Congress will be hosted by the South African Society. Held Oct. 15-18, 2012, the theme of the event is “Beauty in Diversity—A Global Village.”
More info: www.ifscc2012.co.za
Finally, for those who need to plan well in advance, Paris is the host city for the 28th Congress, which will be held Oct. 27-30, 2014.