Good Chemistry

January 10, 2011

The Society of Cosmetic Chemists' annual meeting included sessions on hair styling, sun protection and genomics. Yash Kamath received the Maison G. deNavarre Medal, the Society's highest honor.

AFTER A LENGTHY recession marked by job cuts and reduced R&D budgets, the mood was definitely upbeat at last month’s annual meeting of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists (SCC). The meeting was held in New York City, Dec. 9-10, and attracted nearly 1,200 industry executives—which represented an increase over 2009 attendance, according to the Society. Attendees heard presentations on a variety of subjects, including hair styling, sun protection and genomics. Yash Kamath received the SCC’s highest honor, the Maison G. deNavarre Medal, during the awards luncheon (see p. 93).

The annual meeting got underway with opening remarks by chairman Robert Y. Lochhead of the University of Southern Mississippi. Randy Wickett of the University of Cincinnati succeeded Lochhead as SCC chairman.

“We have great attendance,” observed Lochhead. “It shows that we are doing well even in recession.”

The Dec. 9 morning session was devoted to sunscreen, and was moderated by Howard Epstein of EMD Chemicals. He noted that non-government organizations (NGOs) are raising questions about sunscreens that must be addressed.

Johann Wiechers did just that with a presentation on the skin penetration of nanoparticles from sunscreen formulas. According to Wiechers, the number of sunscreen products containing nanoparticles has risen from 54 in 2005 to more than 1,000 in 2010.

Sun protection session speakers included (l-r): Johann Wiechers, David Schlossman and Philip W. Wertz.
“There is no epidemiological evidence of risk,” he told the audience, and he urged the industry to inform the consumer and not hide from NGOs that disparage the science and the industry. According to Wiechers, nanoparticles do penetrate into the stratum corneum, but do not penetrate into the viable layers of the epidermis. Wiechers noted that when nanoparticle size is smaller than 10nm, the material can penetrate the SC. However, the industry uses particles ranging in size from 10- 60nm. In addition, titanium dioxide and zinc oxide often agglomerate to form larger particles. Moreover, these particles have an anionic coating that does not favor skin penetration. With this information in hand, cosmetic chemists should be confident about incorporating nanoparticles in their sunscreen formulas, he told the audience. “The sun is shining on nanotechnology,” insisted Wiechers. “When you look at all the evidence, you cannot find a problem. But the internet is raising fears (among consumers).”

To combat that fear, he urged the cosmetics industry to mount a counter offensive.

New Sunscreen Materials

Another way to ensure proper UV protection is to incorporate composite materials into sunscreen formulas. David Schlossman of Kobo Products explained how a formula containing spherical polyamide 12 provided UV attenuation that is comparable to that of nanomaterials. Specifically, combining the composite polyamide (PA-12) titanium dioxide powder at 20% with organic sunscreens resulted in an in-vivo PA score greater than 20. In addition, test subjects agreed that the composite formula had a better skin feel than traditional sunscreen formulas. Other composite materials that are currently being evaluated include PMMA, polyesters, silica and biopolymers. To reduce the damage caused by UV rays that manage to reach the skin, Jean- Francois Nicolay of Exsymol suggested incorporating oxothiazolidine (OTZ) into formulas. According to the speaker, the material provides protection against UVA and UVB, and scavenges reactive oxygen species, which leads to ring opening and formation of taurine, a natural protective compound in the skin. In addition, OTZ dose-dependently inhibited infrared radiation- induced MMP1 overexpression.

The morning session closed with the Frontiers of Science Award lecture. Philip Wertz of the University of Iowa reviewed the composition of stratum corneum lipid, their structure and their relation to the barrier function. Wertz refused to answer his own question, “should cosmetic ingredients cross the SC?” Instead, he reviewed four ways that ingredients could penetrate beyond the outer layer of the skin: sweat glands, hair follicles, and intercellular and transcellular methods.

Howard Epstein of EMD Chemicals moderated the opening session on sun protection.

He noted too, that conventional liposomes do not penetrate the SC, but they may diffuse and release their contents. Moreover, materials with molecular weights equal to or greater than 400 daltons do not diffuse well through the stratum corneum. In contrast, quantum dots, which have been widely used for imaging purposes in medical diagnostics, can pass through the SC.

The afternoon featured concurrent sessions devoted to genomics and hair. The former, moderated by Karl Lintner, included a presentation by Remona Gopaul of Nu Skin Enterprises who reviewed the current analytical genomic techniques used for gene expression profiling of the skin. In her opening remarks, Gopaul noted that cosmetic companies have been using genomic techniques to understand the expression of specific genes and their relationship to particular skin attributes as well as to test topical ingredients and formulations. She reviewed common techniques including microassay, SAGE, RNA-Sequencing, RTPCR and northern blot.

She noted that the method of choice in conducting genomic experiments on skin tissue is based on individual study objectives and hypotheses. For example, microassay may be best if the objective of the experiment is to get a global understanding of gene expression under specific conditions. On the other hand, if the objective is to validate specific expression of targeted genes, then a small-scale method such as RT-PCR may be the method of choice.

A Look at Hair

A concurrent afternoon session on hair was moderated by Jim Vlasic and included a presentation by Tom Dawson of Procter & Gamble, who looked at the factors affecting hair health and how age changes the density and diameter of hair. Dawson also provided details on a new way to measure hair growth. He reviewed the hair growth cycle, which includes the anagen (on), catagen (stopping), telogen (off) and neogen (starting) phases. In young, healthy scalps, hair typically grows for three years, stops for three weeks and remains dormant for three months. But with aging, there is a shorter active phase that produces fewer hairs, and these are smaller and of poorer quality than normal hair.

As the hair ages, there are five main changes that are observed: gray levels, diameter, curvature, density and lipids. With age, the amount of hair is reduced as well as the diameter and density. A loss of melanin leads to gray hair and lower sebum production leads to dryness, breakage and frizz. In one study, diameter and density were measured on more than 1000 women ages 18-65.

Despite the magnitude of the study, there are other ways to find out about women’s hair health—just ask them. “If women think that their hair is thinning, it is!,” Dawson told the audience. Researchers found that hair density decreased with age after the 20s, and the rate of density loss accelerated when women reached their 40s. Hair diameter increased until the 40s, then dropped. Hair shaft diameter was more influenced by menopause than density, according to Dawson.

Changes in hair density were similar across the scalp, while changes in diameter were accentuated on frontal scalp versus occipital scalp. One key finding is that in pre-menopausal women, frontal scalp has higher hair counts than occipital scalp. Moreover, on frontal scalp, postmenopausal counts are significantly less relative to pre-menopausal. Therefore, to understand the effect of aging on what women perceive, one must measure from the frontal scalp.

The hair care session speakers included (l-r): Colleen Rocafort, Tom Dawson, Trefor Evans and moderator Jim Vlasic.

To measure human hair diameter, P&G relied on Optimal Fiber Diameter Analyser (OFDA), which is an ASTM-accepted measuring method for wool. According to Dawson, OFDA enables researchers to measure small snippets from every hair, reveals a broad diameter range in human hair, has increased throughput, and costs less than other measuring methods. However, Dawson warned that modifications are necessary for human hair.

He also reviewed the five stages of hair aging, which are:

• First year;
• Age 1-12 (pre-puberty);
• Age 12-30;
• Age 31-45; and
• > 45 (post-menopause).

Between 35-45, the amount of gray hair increases, hair is thicker and less straight with higher frizz, less manageable and less smooth. It has lower shine and gets less UV protection from melanin. But an increase in coloring leads to oxidative damage, color fade and increased environmental damage. After 45, there are more significant hair structure changes observed in this age group, including:

• Lower density (particularly in the frontal region);
• Lower diameter;
• Lower sebum levels;
• Higher curvature (observed in Asian women, not studied in Caucasian women); and
• Shorter anagen period (i.e., shorter hair).
These changes are perceivable to consumers, as hair has less body, is less greasy, less smooth (which may be linked to curvature), weaker and less manageable.

Colleen Rocafort of BASF reviewed some of the latest hair styling trends. She noted that while hair care sales fell in 2009, styling products remain an important category. Consumers want longerlasting hold as well as products for styling older hair. Citing Mintel data, Rocafort noted that 2,136 new hair styling products were launched in 2009, but most of the launches were line extensions. By country, the U.S. led the way, followed by the UK, Japan, Germany, Italy and France.

By company, L’Oréal/Garnier had 240 launches, followed by Henkel (180), P&G (117) and Beiersdorf (60). Among these launches, 52% made functional claims, 29% made beauty-enhancing claims, 26% made natural claims and 19% made convenience claims.

Some of the most important attributes of these products are improved volume, springiness and stiffness, according to Rocafort. Emerging formulation trends include more resin blending, incorporation of particles and clays to increase volume, the use of new polymer/gel hybrids to thicken and style hair and the incorporation of proteins in styling products to boost hair strength.

Friday Sessions

The second day of the annual meeting included sessions on genomics and new technologies and trends in skin. Martha Tate of Kimberly-Clark moderated the session devoted to skin technologies and trends.

David Boudier of Silab described a novel biological pathway for detoxification of skin cells in his presentation, “The autophagic system: A new era in skin detoxification.” He noted that the skin is the constant target of diverse internal and external stresses that damage its constituent components (proteins, lipids, DNA and organelles). This damage clogs and pollutes the cells of the skin, leading to the first signs of fatigue and premature aging. To counteract the damage, the skin has a natural detoxification system that is composed of two major mechanisms that complement each other, the proteasome and autophagy. In recent years, many studies have been conducted on the proteasome, a sensitive detoxification system. In contrast, there have been very few studies on the autophagic mechanism in skin cells. However, this detoxification system is powerful.

It complements proteasome at a basal level, becoming a “relay system” in the case of repeated or greater stresses that would result in inhibition of the proteasome. Silab researchers, in partnership with the University of Limoges, have investigated this detoxification process, which has not been explored to any significant extent to date in dermatocosmetic research. The researchers have shown that autophagy may be used as a valid target for increasing skin cellular resistance to oxidative stress. This new cellular mechanism may serve as a basis for further developments of innovative natural active ingredients for the cosmetic industry.

Melanie Sabadotto of Laboratoires Serobiologiques/ Cognis France demonstrated the suitability and validity of the corneovacumeter, which is a new device for evaluating the skin’s biomechanical properties. The speaker measured these properties with Cutometer SEM575 and Corneovacumeter. For both devices, the evaluation of the mechanical properties of the skin was based on skin deformation induced by suction, but different systems were used for the measurement of displacement. The Corneovacumeter was found to be suitable for the evaluation of the skin’s biomechanical properties.

A Look at Devices

Brian Czetty of Procter & Gamble presented his findings on powered devices for facial cleansing. The title of his presentation was “Powered devices for facial cleansing: should they occupy space in the facial cleansing device toolbox?” This research was initiated because there are little clinical data proving the advantages of deviceaided cleansing versus conventional cleansing methods.

Rotating and oscillating brushes were compared to conventional manual skin cleansing for makeup removal, stratum corneum exfoliation, barrier function, effects on anaerobic bacteria populations and stratum corneum hydration when cleansing was followed with topical moisturizer. Several standardized test methods were used to compare two powered facial cleansing devices to traditional manual cleansing. The study found several beneficial uses of the powered cleansing devices. For example, a significant change in viable anaerobic bacteria population on the face was detected after successive uses of the powered rotating device.

Kamath Earns the SCC’s Highest Honor The Maison G. deNavarre Medal Award

YASH KAMATH, PH.D., received the Maison G. deNavarre Medal Award during the Awards Luncheon, which was held Dec. 9. Prior to his retirement in 2006, Kamath was with TRI/Princeton for 34 years. He was a co-winner of the SCC Literature Award in 1986, while his team at TRI/Princeton won the SCC Best Paper Award three times. Currently, he has his own consulting company, Kamath Consulting, where he continues his research work in hair and skin.

The deNavarre Medal Award is the Society’s highest honor and is awarded to an individual for his or her technical contributions to cosmetic science. Other award winners honored during the annual meeting included:

Shaw Mudge Award, sponsored by BASF: Betsy Schmalz Ferguson for her paper, “Remix. Reformulate. Renew. Red, the New Chemistry of Success.” The award recognizes the best paper presented at the Annual Scientific Seminar.

Allan B. Black Award, sponsored by Presperse: Jane Hollenberg, Yun mi Kim, Youlin Pan and Barry Arkles for their paper, “Surface Treatments to Improve Pigment Dispersion in Aqueous Media.” The award recognizes the best paper on makeup technology either presented at the previous annual scientific meeting or seminar or published in the Journal of Cosmetic Science. This paper was presented at the 2010 annual scientific seminar.

Hans A. Schaeffer Award, sponsored by Arch Personal Care Products: Jennifer Marsh for her paper, “New Product Design Strategies for Colored Hair.” The award recognizes the most innovative paper presented at either the previous annual scientific meeting or seminar. This paper was presented at the 2010 annual scientific seminar. Joseph P. Ciaudelli Award, sponsored by Croda, Inc.: Hiroto Tanamachi, Shigeto Inoue, Noriyuki Tanji, Hisashi Tusjimura, Masashi Oguri, Mio Ishita, Shinichi Tokunaga and Fumiko Sazanami for their paper, “Deposition of 18-MEA onto alkaline-colored-treated weathered hair to form a persistent hydrophobicity.” The award recognizes the best article submitted to the Journal of Cosmetic Science on the subject of hair care technology in 2009.

Des Goddard Award, sponsored by Arch Personal Care Products: Melanie Urdiales for her paper, “Hyperbranched polyalphaolefins improve shine, durability and stability of color cosmetic formulations.” The award recognizes the most innovative paper on the topic of polymer science related to cosmetics or personal care presented at either the annual scientific seminar or meeting. This paper was presented at the 2009 annual scientific meeting.

Society of Cosmetic Chemists Award, sponsored by The Hallstar Company: Vito Cataldo, James Gruber, Ph.D., Francesca Muia and Lisa Bouldin, for their paper: “Stimulation of extracellular matrix proteins by UV-light on the presence of optically-responsive powders.” This award recognizes the best paper that makes the greatest scientific contribution to the knowledge in the field of protecting against or ameliorating damage to human skin caused by exposure to UV radiation presented at the annual scientific seminar. This paper was presented at the 2010 annual scientific seminar.

Robert A. Kramer Lifetime Service Award: Robert Saute, Ph.D., for his extraordinary service and distinguished leadership in society activities over the course of his membership, which has spanned 57 years. SCC Merit Award: Mindy S. Goldstein, Ph.D., for her outstanding services and distinguished leadership in society activities, especially for serving as the 56th president, chair and member of the COSA Committee and editor of the Journal of Cosmetic Science. Finally, a certificate of appreciation was presented to Robert Lochhead, Ph.D., in recognition of able and efficient leadership, his counsel, and unselfishness as the Society’s 64th president.
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