Cosmetics, Southern Style

By Tom Branna, Editorial Director | June 29, 2012

Sustainability, skin protection barriers, molecular biology and new formulation ideas were the topics as the Society of Cosmetic Chemists gathered in Charleston, SC for the Annual Scientific Seminar.

The Society of Cosmetic Chemists, which is headquartered in New York, headed south last month for its annual Scientific Seminar. More than 200 chemists attended the event, which included sessions on sustainability, skin protection barriers, molecular biology and new formulation ideas. The event was hosted by four SCC chapters—Carolina, Florida, Mid-Atlantic and Southeast. Although the conference room was filled with industry veterans, there were several first-timers. Joseph Dallal, president of the Society, demonstrated a bit of southern hospitality when he welcomed them all and urged the newbies to take advantage of all the opportunities that the annual seminar has to offer.

“(The seminar) is a chance to meet and talk and it’s a great atmosphere to learn from one another,” said Dallal.

Attendees could learn a lot from John Warner who gave the Henry Maso Keynote Award Lecture. Warner, co-founder of Warner Babcock Institute for Green Chemistry, LLC, is best known as the co-author of “Green Chemistry,” the tome that gave the world the 12 Principles of Green Chemistry.

According to Warner, green chemistry is the next megatrend, and he insisted that green chemistry should be the building block for every product development effort.

But as more consumers clamor for green, sustainable products, and industry begins delivering them, US colleges and universities are failing to offer the courses necessary to create this new shade of scientist, according to Warner.


SCC chairman Joseph Dallal and Michael Fevola, Johnson & Johnson.
“No student is required to understand toxicology,” he charged. Warner’s goal is to get toxicology curriculum in 500 of the 650 US colleges and universities within the next five years. Corporations, he insisted, can’t afford to wait.

“If a company spends $1 billion a year on research and development, (you can bet) they also spend $1 billion a year on environmental compliance.”

To get there, he called on the US to build a green toolbox filled with environmentally-friendly solutions, noting that China already has 15 centers devoted to green chemistry, while India mandates that all students take green chemistry courses.

For his part, Warner founded Beyond Benign, which is dedicated to providing future and current scientists, educators and citizens with the tools to teach and learn about green chemistry in order to create a sustainable future.

But this brave new world of sustainability remains a moving target and will take years to evolve.
Therefore, Warner urged consumers, business and regulators to be patient.

“If we throw away the excellent and insist on the perfect, then we will fail,” he warned the audience.
Warner’s other company, The Warner Babcock Institute for Green Chemistry, is dedicated to the development of non-toxic, environmentally benign and sustainable technological solutions for society.
The Institute has created green solutions for a variety of industries, including a “nontoxic” hair colorant.
Warner may be the leading voice on green chemistry but, during the Scientific Seminar, his wasn’t the only voice heard on the subject.

Michael Fevola of Johnson & Johnson moderated a session, “Scientific Approach to Sustainability.” Camille Sasik of Aveda explained the development of sensory test methodology for the identification of sustainable polymers for hair styling applications. She noted that Aveda’s Green Ingredient Policy calls for green chemistry and sustainable technologies, and referred to a Native American saying, “The frog does not drink up the pond on which it lives.”

For its part, Aveda relies on starches, proteins, cellulosics and gum for its fixatives. But in noting that not all starches are created equal, Sasik detailed the sensory tests that Aveda uses to ensure the right materials are used in its products.

A Greener ACS
It’s one thing for chemists to work sustainably in the lab, but it is imperative to green the supply chain to develop more sustainable formulations, insisted Tom Burns of Novozymes and the American Chemical Society Green Chemistry Institute. He called on industry, academia, government and NGOs to collaborate to find green alternatives. Specifically, the Green Chemistry Institute is looking for greener antimicrobials, solvents, small amines, chelants, boron alternatives, fragrance raw materials, corrosion inhibitors, alkanolamide replacements, surfactants and UV filters.

Burns’ presentation was followed by David Wylie, also of ACS, who told attendees that green can be cheaper than traditional chemical processes. At the same time, it can reduce the number of synthetic steps needed in the process, shorten production times and is a more efficient use of resources. He called the ANSI/NSF/GCI 355 Standard a tool for greener formulations.

Wylie insisted that this standard will play a central role in the transformation of chemistry from a petroleum-based enterprise to one driven by the 12 Principles of Green Chemistry.

Protecting the Barrier
Karl Lintner of Kal’idees moderated a session on skin protection and barrier function. Ingo Schellenberg, Anhalt University of Applied Sciences, described how one may quantify and identify lipids in skin and cosmetics by using automated multiple development and TLC-MS interface. He said that by combining HPTLC and TLC-MS interface enables the chemist to quickly identify lipids directly from the thin layer plate by using mass spectrometry.

Isabelle Imbert, Ashland Specialty Ingredients, explained why lipidic homeostasis is essential to maintain skin barrier structure and function through aging and environmental insult. Her team evaluated a natural compound (IV09.001) for its ability to modulate 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzymeA (HMG-CoA) reductase in skin, as well as the effects of a peptide (IVR08.003) on caspase 14, a cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease, activated during terminal differentiation of the epidermis. A second natural compound (IV08.008) was studied for its role in the formation of the cornified envelope by modulating transglutaminases.

In human skin biopsies, topical application of a cream containing 1% IV09.001 noticeably increased the expression of HMG-CoA reductase after 48 hours. Stimulation of HMG-CoA reductase by IV09.001 increased polar epidermal lipids by 41.4% after 48 hours.

According to the speaker, these results demonstrate the skin benefits of compounds maintaining lipidic homeostatis by modulating HMGCoA reductase, caspase 14, transglutaminasis and improving epidermal barrier structure and function as well as resistance to stress and pathogens. Imbert concluded that these results suggest great promise for aged skin that suffers from a decline in lipid synthesis and reduced UV protection and DNA repair capacity.

Aging is an extrinsic and intrinsic process; the former depends on the effectiveness of the skin barrier function, according to Smitha Rao, Lonza Personal Care. She described how her team used a 2% dual ferment to create a bioactive fermentation extract (BFE). Lonza’s research found that microorganisms with well-known properties can grow in competitive environments to generate either new activity, potentially new modes of action or new targets for topical treatments.

At 2% use levels, the BFE-laced cream increased the expression of Caspase-14 (which protects skin from UVB) and hyaluronic acid in the tissue models. The BFEs also strengthened the barrier functionality by influencing structural proteins and cellular moisturization.

“Strengthening the barrier function is the primary means to improving cellular response to compromised skin,” observed Rao.

She added that BFEs help improve the overall well being of compromised skin.

Russel Walters of Johnson & Johnson explained how vibrational spectroscopy is used to map sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) permeation and interaction with stratum corneum lipids. By understanding this interaction, researchers hope to reduce the redness, dryness and other forms of irritation that commonly affect skin that comes in contact with surfactants.

“By changing the solution properties, we can create skin cleansers that do not disrupt (the barrier) as much,” Walters explained.

The J&J team added PEG-80 sorbitan laurate to the SDS, which co-micellized with the SDS to change the micelle dynamics and reduce the SDS penetration into skin.

Skin’s Molecular Biology
Day 2 of the Scientific Seminar opened with a session devoted to molecular biology of skin. Howard Epstein of EMD Chemicals performed double-duty, serving as moderator as well as explaining the important role that gene expression plays in the formulation of effective cosmetics. He noted that there are 20 different amino acids in the body and these may be hydrophilic or hydrophobic and positively or negatively charged. Therefore they may be ordered in a variety of ways that have major ramifications on skin.

Karl Lintner, Kal’idees, (left) and Russel Walters, Johnson & Johnson
“You can understand how many combinations are possible,” he told the audience. “Our cells are creating new cells that have yet to be identified. That’s why we haven’t found a cure for aging.”

For successful anti-aging products, Epstein advised the cosmetic chemists in attendance to look to antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents. One of these is Ectoin, a natural material that has anti-inflammatory properties and has the ability to protect DNA from UV damage. Another material is DHMC, an anti-inflammatory that is widely used in China. Epstein warned, however, that J&J has patented the material when it is used in combination with retinol. Interleukin, specifically, IL-12, can repair UV-induced DNA damage, according to Epstein.

Philip Ludwig, Lonza Personal Care, explained how rice meristem promotes rejuvenation at the epigenic, protein and macro levels. The material is derived from Himalayan Red Rice, whose cells are grown in a bioreactor and subjected to an ozone stress that causes them to produce secondary metabolites. Through an in vitro assay, Lonza researchers demonstrated rejuvenation at the epigenetic level of treated cells and an upregulation of collagen.

“A cream containing 2-4% rice meristem reduced age spots, improved skin tone and boosted skin hydration,” noted Ludwig. “It also led to improvements in the barrier and better pore appearance.”

The impact of xylityl glucoside (XG) on the expression of barrier function-related genes and moisturization-related proteins, was the presentation topic of Sandy Dumont of Seppic. In its studies, Seppic researchers found that XG showed a 25% improvement in desquamation and a 30% improvement in skin micro-relief. Furthermore, Western-blot analysis showed that XG was able to induce a moderate increase (9%) in the expression of Aquaporins-3 and a 31% increase in hyaluronic acid production.

Karl Lintner, president, Kal’idees, noted that glycation and glycotoxins plays a key role in overall human health, including the skin. But he also detailed the anti-glycation properties of several natural materials. For example, a cream containing 4% albizia extract blocked glycotoxin formation in vitro and a Western blot analysis showed a 56% drop in detoxifying glyoxalase-1. In an in vivo test involving 44 panelists, the material reduced the amount of advanced glycation end products, glycated collagen and pentosidine in skin.

“Glycation is not inevitable,” Lintner insisted. “Up to a point, you can prevent, reduce and reverse it.”
Jennifer Marsh of Procter & Gamble moderated the final session, which was devoted to new formulation. Jennie Kravchenko of Clariant detailed her efforts to improve the aesthetics and benefits of hand sanitizers. Researchers incorporated benzalkonium chloride into a silicone-based formula for improved aesthetics. Clariant also developed a benzalkonium chloride foaming hand sanitizer based on polyethylene glycol. The formula improved the volume, stability and bubble size compared to amphoteric systems.

Jurgen Meyer of Evonik provided details on the influence that emulsifiers, emollients and additives have on lamellar phases in cosmetic emulsions. Evonik researchers studied the formation of liquid crystalline networks in emulsions using polyglyceryl-3 dictrate/stearate, a new PEG-free O/W emulsifier v. ceteareth-25, and a traditional ethoxylated O/W emulsifier. Although both emulsions have similar bilayers and the structures, the PEG-free emulsifier system is far more robust and versatile when oil phases of different polarities are used, according to Meyer.

Jeffery R. Seidling, Kimberly-Clark, explained how a change-phase material (octadecane and stearyl heptanoate) was incorporated into a tissue to deliver cooling sensation to the user via its high latent heat of fusion as it melts. To further improve the cooling sensation, K-C researchers added a combination of polyethylene and stearyl alcohol to reduce the size of crystallites.

The Scientific Seminar’s final speaker was Gary Agism, Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, who explained a breakthrough formulation approach to improving the aesthetics of lip balm sunscreen. Agism noted that traditional UV filters such as avobenzone have an unpleasant taste. His formula incorporates a sorbitol spider ester, sorbet-2-hexaoleate, to block the offensive taste. But Agism warned that the spider ester and the sunscreen must be premixed with warming to form a complex that is stable at ambient temperatures.

Remembering Henry Maso
John Warner (left) opened the scientific seminar by delivering the Henry Maso Keynote Award Lecture. Warner is pictured with (l-r) David Steinberg, Steinberg Associates, and SCC chairman Joseph Dallal, Ashland Specialty Products, Inc.


Aug. 3: NYSCC Golf Outing, Crystal Springs Golf Course, Hamburg, NJ.
More info: www.nyscc.org

Aug. 11: Long Island Chapter Annual Family Picnic, Heckscher State Park Pavilion 3, East Islip, NY.
More info: www.liscc.org

Aug. 15: “Workshop on Skin Biochemistry” Fairleigh Dickinson University, Hackensack, NJ.
More info: www.nyscc.org or nava.dayan@verizon.net

Student and Industry Awards
• The Society took time out from scientific presentations to honor its own and welcome the next generation of cosmetic chemists.

The Society recognized four outstanding student posters that were on display during the meeting. First place went to Andrew B. Adams (at right) and Lisa Kemp, University of Southern Mississippi, “Preventing Oil from Wetting Keratin: the Use of Contact Angle and Surface Tension Measurements to Design Oil Dispersants.” Other top posters included: Second place, Sudhir Baswan, S. Kevin Li and Gerald B. Kasting, University of Cincinnati, “Characterization of Ion Transport in Human Nail Plate;” Third place, Jennifer I. Karr and Gerald B. Kasting, University of Cincinnati, “DEET Encapsulation Reduces Absorption in a 4-Hour Exposure to Human Skin In-Vitro;” Fourth place, Vipul Padman, University of Southern Mississippi, “The Effect of Polymer Backbone Rigidity and Hydrophilicity on Polymer-Surfactant Interaction.”

DD Chemco, Inc. sponsors the student poster awards.

The Society of Cosmetic Chemists’ Award, which recognizes the Best Paper presented at the 2011 Annual Scientific Meeting, was presented to Ram Ramaprasad and Mythili Nori for their paper “An alternative method for reshaping hair.”

Rhodia Novecare sponsors the award.

Mark Your Calendar
• The annual meeting of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists will take place Dec. 6-7, 2012 at the New York Hilton, New York, NY.

The 2013 Annual Scientific Seminar will be held June 6-7, 2013 at the Union Station Marriott, St. Louis, MO.
More info: www.scconline.org

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