Online Exclusives

Biotechnological Hyaluronic Acid Enhancer for Mature Skin

By Mu00edriam Mateu, Cristina Davi, Elena Cau00f1adas, Albert Soley and Raquel Delgado | February 12, 2013

Lipotec researchers detail the benefits of applying hyaluronic acid on wrinkles.

Time plays a main role in altering and deteriorating the skin structure, so that features of mature skin differ from those younger. Some of them are frown lines in the forehead, periorbital wrinkles and nasolabial folds, which appearance is influenced by genetics and enhanced by gravity force, stress, inadequate rest, frequent and constant positional pressures of facial skin, repeated facial movements and environmental factors.
 
Some reasons for the appearance of these lines and folds are histological and physiological alterations that include dermal extracellular matrix (ECM) impairment, collagen and elastin degradation, and barrier function damage. The ECM is a 3D mesh formed by various macromolecules that comprise proteins and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). GAGs are long linear heterogeneous polysaccharides with repeating disaccharide units.1 Due to their highly negative charges, GAGs are hydrophilic and able to attract water inside the tissue.2

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major compound of the ECM that belongs to the GAG family, and it is mainly found as a free molecule.3 The skin presents half of the total body content of HA, where it provides hydration (retains water up to 1000 times its own weight), support and volume, and it participates in cellular migration, proliferation and wound healing.3 This non-sulphated GAG is able to diminish epidermal water loss and raise water retention into the dermis, which results in a notable plumping effect.4

There is a dynamic equilibrium between the synthesis and degradation of HA in the skin, ensuring a stable quantity of available and functional HA. Unfortunately, this balance is altered when aging due to the increasing number of HA molecules that bind the tissues, the diminution of its synthesis and the raise in its degradation by hyaluronidases.

The HA loss leads to dehydration, volume shrink and visible wrinkles. The small zone between the nose and the upper lip, known as nasolabial area, is highly susceptible to volume changes and even small variations can easily form nasogenian folds. Such wrinkles are considered one of the clearest signs of mature skin and the aging process.

Marine ecosystems are rich in diversity and microorganisms, especially those in bays and estuaries, due to its combination of salt and fresh water. These habitats are exposed to tides and waves, and suffer gradients of temperature, oxygen and light typical between salty and fresh water. The inhabiting bacteria, algae and fungi have had to develop mechanisms to help their colony and ensure their survival.5-7

In estuaries, some bacteria produce functional Exopolysaccharides (EPSs).7 EPSs are glucidic biopolymers naturally secreted to the surrounding media as a response to environmental stress. These polysaccharides can raise microorganism survival by increasing hydration and nutrition, acting in intracellular processes, immunologic modulation, cell recognition, proliferation and migration, and assisting in favourable adhesions to solid surfaces. Thus, they are also thought to possibly interact with cell receptors promoting beneficial activities, like the production of structural compounds.5,7-9

Although most EPSs present either uronic acids like D-glucuronic acid or ketal-linked pyruvate, EPSs have many possible compositions according to their main required function implying a wide range of chemical and physical properties. Therefore, they present many potential uses and applications in the cosmetic industry, such as stabilising, film-forming, gelling, thickening, anti-aging and water retaining agents.6

The naturally found EPSs can also be obtained by biotechnology. This technology encompasses the use of living microorganisms to obtain natural molecules for a specific use, while helping to preserve the environment, as there is no harvesting or extracting from nature. The use of science and engineering in the manufacturing processes helps to achieve an optimal performance, which yields an adequate growth and maximal productivity of a microorganism, allowing to obtain complex molecules that could not be possible to get through chemical reactions due to technical or economic limitations.

Hyanify (INCI: Saccharide Isomerate) was obtained via biotechnological fermentation of a marine γ-proteobacteria strain isolated from the surface of a Laminaria alga in the Aber Wrac’h estuary in Brittany (France). This area has both the influence of salt and fresh water, so the inhabiting microorganisms need to develop special structures and mechanisms to survive, including the production of such functional EPS.

Several studies were performed to analyse the efficacy of this special EPS in mature skin and concretely on the recovery of the nasolabial area which is extremely susceptible to the aging natural process and easily loses volume.

Materials and Methods
Due to the importance of HA in skin appearance and conditions, an ELISA test was performed to observe the effect of Saccharide Isomerate on the induction of HA in human dermal fibroblasts, as these cells are its main producers .10 After cells were seeded in 24-well plates and incubated during 24 hour, deprivation medium was added and cells were incubated for additional 24 hour. Afterwards, cells were treated with 1mg/mL of the active EPS for 48 hours. Then, medium was collected and HA quantitated by an ELISA test measuring absorbance values at 405nm in a microtiter plate reader.

Non-treated cells were used as the negative control and cells treated with Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF-BB) were used as the positive control. HA concentrations were determined using a linear regression of the HA standard solutions curve, calculating the percentage of induction with respect to the negative control.

Another study was to assess the in vivo efficacy of Saccharide Isomerate on the nasolabial fold volume recovery by measuring physical parameters related to skin topography before its application and after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. Thus, a panel of 19 volunteers between 44-56 years old, with nasolabial fold of moderate intensity and II-III Fitzpatrick phototype, applied a cream with 1% of a solution with the EPS twice a day on the face, insisting on the nasogenian fold.

Skin topography was evaluated by FOITS. Fringe projection gave 3D images where the maximum and average depth, circumference, area and volume were calculated. The maximum depth represents the distance between the skin basal height and the bottom of the cavity, and the average depth is the mean of all the possible depths of the cavity. The volume parameter refers to the volume of the cavity created in the skin, the circumference is the circumference of the cavity at the basal height and the area is the surface corresponding to the cavity.

Fig. 1. Maximum and average depth parameters.

 


















Results and Discussions
 
Results showed that Saccharide Isomerate efficiently induced HA synthesis compared to the negative control, causing a statistically significant 66.0% stimulation on human dermal fibroblasts.
 
After 14 and 28 days of treatment, Saccharide Isomerate diminished the maximum depth of the nasogenian fold by an average of 13.6% and 19.6% respectively, being statistically significant values. The maximum recorded reductions were 64.7% and 70.6% after the same periods.
 
Likewise, the average value of all the depths of the nasogenian fold was reduced by 14.7% and 18.5% due to Saccharide Isomerate after 14 and 28 days of treatment respectively, being statistically significant results. Maximal decreases of 65.8% and 71.4% were observed after the same periods.


Fig. 2 Improvement of the average value of all wrinkle depths.
 























Results showed that the nasolabial fold already experienced a diminution in its average volume, area and circumference just after 14 days of treatment with Saccharide Isomerate. At the end of the treatment, the average circumference was reduced by 15.3%, the area by 17.2% and the volume by 27.0% (statistically significant effects). The maximum reductions found were 93.5% for the volume, 77.8% for the area and 79.3% for the circumference.


Fig. 3. Average circumference, area and volume improvement.



 



















The pictures taken at the beginning and after 28 days of the treatment with the active ingredient undoubtedly demonstrated the positive evolution of the nasolabial fold, visible improving its appearance. The silicon patterns also showed that the nasolabial fold notably decreased.

Fig. 4. Images and silicon patterns at the beginning (left) and after 28 days of treatment with a cream containing Saccharide Isomerate (right).
 
Saccharide Isomerate clearly improved the nasolabial wrinkles and provided a visible replenishing effect on the area, which rejuvenated the appearance of the skin.

Conclusions
Saccharide Isomerateproved to notably act on HA synthesis, inducing it by 66.0% in human dermal fibroblasts in culture. In a panel of volunteers, it decreased the maximum and average wrinkle depth (13.6% and 14.7% respectively) in the nasogenian folds in just 14 days, showing even better mean results after 28 days (19.6% and 18.5% respectively). Additionally, the average volume, area and circumference values of this zone were also reduced after 28 days (27.0%, 17.2% and 15.3% respectively). All results were statistically significant.
 
Therefore, at the light of the results, this EPS demonstrated to improve one of the most concerning facial areas in mature skin by boosting HA synthesis. Hyanify™ is an excellent anti-aging ingredient that visibly ameliorates the appearance of nasolabial folds, replenishing them, which leads to a visible younger skin appearance.
 
 
References
1. Souza-Fernandes AB, Pelosi P, Rocco PR. Bench-to-bedside review: The role of glycosaminoglycans in respiratory disease. Crit Care. 10(6): 237, 2006.
2. House M, Kaplan DL, Socrate S. Relationships between mechanical properties and extracellular matrix constituents of the cervical stroma during pregnancy. Semin Perinatol. 33(5): 300-307, 2009.
3. Stern R. Review: Devising a pathway for hyaluronan catabolism: are we there yet? Glycobiology. 13(12): 105R-115R, 2003.
4. John HE, Price RD. Perspectives in the selection of hyaluronic acid fillers for facial wrinkles and aging skin. Patient Prefer Adherence. 3: 225-230, 2009.
5. Raguénès GHC, Peres A, Ruimy R, et al. Alteromonas infernus sp. nov., a new polysaccharide-producing bacterium isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. J App Microbiol. 82:422-430, 1997.
6. Guezennec J. Deep-sea hydrotermal vents: A new source of innovative bacterial exopolysaccharides of biotechnological interest? J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 29: 204-208, 2002.
7. Chi Z, Fang Y. Exopolysaccharides from Marine Bacteria. J Ocean Univ China. 4(1): 67-74, 2005.
8. Zanchetta P, Lagarde N, Guezennec J. Systemic effects on bone healing on a New Hyaluronic acid-like bacterial exopolysaccharide. Calcif Tissue Int. 73: 232-236, 2003.
9. Hsu HY, Hua KF, Lin CC, et al. Extract of reishi polysaccharides induces cytokine expression via TLR4-modulated protein kinase signaling pathways. J Immunol. 173: 5989-5999, 2004.
10.Li L, Asteriou T, Bernert B, et al. Growth factor regulation of hyaluronan synthesis and degradation in human dermal fibroblasts: importance of hyaluronan for the mitogenic response of PDGF-BB. Biochem J. 404(2): 327-336, 2007.

blog comments powered by Disqus
  • Innovation On Display

    Melissa Meisel, Associate Editor||February 3, 2016
    P&G Beauty Digital Studio showcases new products for 2016

  • Crowning Glory

    Crowning Glory

    Christine Esposito , Associate Editor||February 3, 2016
    Celebrity stylists and experts from leading hair care brands talk about the ingredients and formats driving the styling sector.

  • Electric Slide

    Electric Slide

    Melissa Meisel, Associate Editor||February 3, 2016
    Skin care devices bring anti-aging to the next level

  • Buy the Sea, Buy the Sea, Buy the Beautiful Sea

    Buy the Sea, Buy the Sea, Buy the Beautiful Sea

    Tom Branna, Editorial Director||February 9, 2016
    Nova Scotia Fisherman makes a boatload of products that contain sea kelp and a raft of natural ingredients.

  • What

    What's on Tap for 2016?

    Nancy Jeffries, Contributing Editor||February 8, 2016
    CEW and NPD present their beauty industry review and preview.

  • Witch

    Witch's Brew: Dickinson's celebrates milestone in 2016

    Christine Esposito, Associate Editor||February 1, 2016
    Dickinson’s celebrates 150 years of witch hazel skin care with the biggest line expansion in the company’s history.

  • From Research to Retail

    Tom Branna, Editorial Director||February 1, 2016
    What began as research on skin disorders led a dermatologist and his father to create their own skin care formulas.

  • Between The Sheets: A look at the dryer sheet category

    Between The Sheets: A look at the dryer sheet category

    Christine Esposito, Associate Editor||January 25, 2016
    How has the fabric softener sheet category fared of late?

  • Raising the Bar

    Raising the Bar

    Melissa Meisel, Associate Editor||January 25, 2016
    CeraVe Healing Ointment is billed as a next-level skin salve.

  • Morning Jolt…Before Coffee

    Morning Jolt…Before Coffee

    Christine Esposito, Associate Editor||January 18, 2016
    New caffeine-infused toothpaste launches on Indiegogo.

  • Anything but Botched!

    Anything but Botched!

    Tom Branna, Editorial Director||January 18, 2016
    The creator of a new skin care line finds an audience even before they get to try the formulas.

  • A Frosch Start in the US

    A Frosch Start in the US

    Christine Esposito, Associate Editor||January 18, 2016
    A trusted eco-savvy German household cleaning brand is now available in America.

  • 5 Things I Learned

    5 Things I Learned

    January 15, 2016
    The Avon & Women’s Dermatologic Society Mentorship Program. Dr. Sabrina Fabi (left) and Dr. Kimberly Jerdan.

  • Perfect Timing

    Perfect Timing

    Tom Branna, Editorial Director||January 11, 2016
    New ways of collecting data can help cosmetics companies understand what women really want—and when they want it.

  • When a Cosmetic Becomes a Drug

    When a Cosmetic Becomes a Drug

    Jacqueline Sheridan, Dinsmore & Shohl LLP||January 11, 2016
    The unintentional conversion of personal care products through marketing.

  • Lauren B Good

    Lauren B Good

    Melissa Meisel, Associate Editor||January 4, 2016
    Luxe nail polish line attracts cult following and lands in Whole Foods stores.

  • Miami Clean Machine

    Miami Clean Machine

    Christine Esposito, Associate Editor||December 28, 2015
    EMG Cleaning Systems is expanding its presence in I&I cleaning.

  • Unshrinkit Is Undeterred

    Unshrinkit Is Undeterred

    Christine Esposito, Associate Editor||December 21, 2015
    The biggest night in this startup’s history didn’t go as smoothly as planned, but the company’s co-founder is confident about the future of her specialty laundry product.

  • Hand It To Them!

    Hand It To Them!

    Melissa Meisel, Associate Editor||December 21, 2015
    New SKU reportedly improves the appearance of pigment, texture and wrinkles for hand rejuvenation.

  • Africa, Rising

    Africa, Rising

    December 14, 2015
    Savvy marketers should expand their operations on the continent, according to speakers at a WFFC seminar.

  • Color, Your World

    Color, Your World

    December 7, 2015
    A kaleidoscope of concepts was the conversation at a recent NYSCC symposium.

  • Let Me Get Your Digits…

    Let Me Get Your Digits…

    Melissa Meisel, Associate Editor||December 1, 2015
    Sally Hansen branches out with a new app and fashion colors.

  • Play Misty for Me

    Play Misty for Me

    Christine Esposito, Associate Editor||November 30, 2015
    Body mists for men and women continue to be the hottest commodities in the mass fragrance market.

  • The Space Between

    The Space Between

    Christine Esposito, Associate Editor||November 24, 2015
    Prestige Brands expands its platform with yesterday's acquisition of DenTek, a major player in the fast-growing “peg” oral care sector.

  • A Home of One’s Own

    A Home of One’s Own

    Christine Esposito, Associate Editor||November 23, 2015
    NeoStrata’s Exuviance has opened its first freestanding retail space, complete with on-site skin analysis and express treatment rooms.

  • Into the Mist-ic

    Into the Mist-ic

    Melissa Meisel, Associate Editor||November 16, 2015
    Toilet tissue spray is billed as an eco-friendly alterative to wipes.

  • The Return of Norell

    The Return of Norell

    Melissa Meisel, Associate Editor||November 9, 2015
    Classic perfume makes a comeback for the holidays.

  • Hitting a Wall(mart)

    Hitting a Wall(mart)

    November 9, 2015
    Walmart imposes slotting fees and that hurts a lot of Tier 2 and 3 FMCG companies.