Features

The Next Generation Of Cold Process Wax

By Marc Cornell, Adam Perle and Carl Cappabianca, Jeen International | August 2, 2013

Jeen International researchers have developed an instant cold emulsion technology that enables formulators to incorporate wax-like materials with a high-melt point into a low-energy process.

In 2009, Jeen International Corporation launched its now patented (US patents granted November 2012) Jeesperse Cold Process Wax (CPW) line of emulsion stabilizer bases. This product line allowed for lower temperature formulation and manufacturing of (oil in water) emulsion systems. The simplicity of this chemistry was based on a unique interaction between a polymer (polyelectrolyte) and a waxy solid. This interaction allows emulsion formulation processes to be engineered at lower temperatures (25-30°C) than typically used in traditional manufacturing environments which can require temperatures greater than 70°C. This change in process temperatures allows for the incorporation of wax-like materials with a high melt point into a low energy (heat) process. The savings in time and energy have been found to boost efficiencies in the lab and manufacturing environments.

Now, the next generation of this unique patented technology, Jeesperse ICE-T instant cold emulsion technology, has been launched. This article describes the overall mechanism behind the cold process technology, various “chassis” formulation specifics and concludes with the specific attributes and benefits of the next generation Jeesperse ICE-T line.

Wax Polymer Interactions
What’s so special about using waxes at low temperatures? We all know that many of the emulsifiers, consistency enhancers and stabilizing raw materials used in cosmetics must be melted, right? In some cases, materials like polyethylene must be heated to temperatures as high as 126°C. In formulating cosmetics, the manufacturing process parameters of temperature (heat), manufacturing time and specific cooling rates must be controlled. What would happen if you didn’t need to heat or cool to make many of these cosmetic products?

In answer to some of these questions, the chemical composition of a wax starts in an ordered molecular orientation prior to melting in what is often referred to as a lattice structure. This lattice structure is one of the reasons why waxes crystalize in a reproducible fashion when they are heated and cooled. In relation to this phenomenon, much can be learned from experiences in the petroleum industry where a waxy suspension (crude oil) is pumped long distances in pipelines. During this travel, the crude oil is exposed to a wide range of hot and cold temperatures. When this crude oil cools to lower temperatures, a plug of solid waxy hydrocarbons may form and stop the oil flow in the line. 

The petroleum industry and aligned researchers discovered that the crude oil waxy structure can be altered at low temperatures by selecting unique polymer additives, which do not permit such waxy hydrocarbons to set up. These materials are described as pour point depressants. These polymeric substances are added to a crude oil and the polymer associates with the wax crystal lattice structure in a way that blocks or stearically hinders the complete formation of the wax crystal.1

This hindered lattice structure still allows a waxy material to maintain its original chemistry and functional properties, but at lower temperatures. The polymer physical/chemical properties must be carefully selected and matched to each wax as the molecular interaction of wax and polymer are critical to allowing for this pour point depression.2

In summary, a blend of hydrophilic polymers and waxes is not unique unless a direct understanding of the base chemistry and application is in hand. This understanding relates to characterizing the wax material solubility, heat of fusion (via differential scanning calorimetry), polymer type, polymer chain entanglement, crystal lattice structure and other factors. It’s not an easy task, but the application of this science is where the ease of use and enhanced efficiencies are gained.

Chassis Formulation
Everyone is familiar with automotive production lines. The visual is many people working on a non-descript four-wheel chassis, as depicted in Figure 1, which looks like the framework of just about any car—economy to prestige—but when the completed vehicle rolls off the line, it’s the branding that distinguishes the specific level produced.

We know that this chassis technique of product manufacturing has benefits in efficiencies which increase production output, but there are also improvements in other areas which benefit businesses. The consistent manufacturing process and common raw materials used in the chassis manufacturing design help improve product quality. This tandem of improved quality and production efficiency allow for more resources to be directed toward innovation, product differentiation and line extension.

The cosmetic product formulation chassis follows a similar technique as the automotive framework, which also quickly diverges into the branding realm via creativity and artistry of texture development and aesthetic enhancement needed to convince people to put cosmetic products on their skin and hair. This is where the Jeesperse CPW technology first took hold in cosmetics and it is where the genesis of the next generation Jeesperse ICE-T instant cold emulsion technology is now extending this concept.

When looking at any ingredient list for a cosmetic product,  one sees a sequence of ingredients that shows up across brands in a particular product category. Let’s take the example of a theoretical hand and body lotion shown above for the demonstration of a chassis formulation concept. The first ingredient in our theoretical ingredient list is water because it helps the cost of goods and is a good solvent. From there, a humectant (glycerin) and an emollient package are often listed sequentially with emulsifier package coming in line next. This chassis has some flexibility, but the functionality and sequence in most products remains standard based on formulation science or regulatory guidance.

In looking at the table above, we find that our theoretical hand and body lotions can be condensed down into a formulation chassis frame (polymer) that, for purposes of our demonstration, will be the foundation of our products. The “wheels” of our chassis formulas are the various waxy materials that may be emulsifiers, structuring waxes or texture modifiers. Previously, the key element for use of these waxy materials was they all required heating. However, this is no longer the case—now a powder, water and emollient blend of your choice, plus the appropriate mixing technique, are all that are necessary to get started on cosmetic innovation without applying heat.

The formulas that follow are good examples of how to work with Jeen’s ICE-T technology.

Formulation 1: Body Cream
Ingredients: %Wt.
Deionized water 50.000
Triethanolamine 0.800
Jeesperse ICE-T LB21 (Jeen) (Cetyl alcohol, glyceryl stearate, stearic acid, glycol stearate,  acrylates C10-30 alkyl crosspolymer) 7.500
Glycerin (96% USP)  4.000
Petrolatum 3.000
Jeechem IPP NF (Jeen) (Isopropyl palmitate NF) 3.200
Deionized water 28.180
Jeesilc PDS-350 (Jeen) (Dimethicone (polydimethylsiloxane) 2.000
Lactic acid (UPI) 0.0100
Citrus fragrance (West Fragrance) 0.400
Dissolvene Na2 (AkzoNobel) (Disodium EDTA) 0.010
Titanium dioxide ultrafine (Kobo) 0.300
Jeecide DMDM Hydantoin (DMDM hydantoin) 0.600

Procedure: Start by mixing the water and triethanolamine together using an overhead prop mixer.  Add Jeesperse ICE-T LB21 slowly and mix until homogenous.  Add glycerin, then petrolatum and mix until homogenous.  Add Jeechem IPP until homogenous and then add water, mix well.  Add Jeesilc PDS-350 and mix until homogenous.  Add lactic acid, mix well, and then add fragrance.  Add disodium EDTA and mix well until homogenous.  Add titanium dioxide and mix until the powder is completely dispersed.  Add Jeecide DMDM and mix until homogenous.  Adjust pH and make final property checks.

Formulation Properties: Appearance—off-white cream; Target pH—7.2; Target viscosity—64,000 cps (@10 rpm, spindle #95 (T-E) on a Brookfield RVT Heliopath mode).

Formulation 2: Revitalizing Night Cream
Ingredients: %Wt.
Phase A  
Deionized water 62.020
Triethanolamine 1.000
Phase B  
Jeesperse ICE-T HSLG-T-21 (Jeen) (PPG-3 myristyl ether, PEG-100 stearate, PEG-40 stearate, steareth-20, sodium acrylate/sodium acryloyl dimethyl taurate copolymer, acrylates/C10-30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer) 8.000
Phase C  
Citric acid (10%)  3.000
Phase D  
Jeechem 400NF (Jeen) (PEG-8) 4.000
Jeesilc EM-90 (Jeen) (Cetyl PEG, PPG-10, 1 dimethicone) 1.000
Jeesilc PDS-20 (Jeen) (dimethicone) 2.000
Jeesilc PDS-350 (Jeen) (Dimethicone (polydimethylsiloxane) 2.000
Jeechem Squalene Natural  2.000
RITA HA C-1-C (RITA) (Sodium hyaluronate) 2.000
Jeesorb S-20-K (NF) (Jeen) (Polysorbate 60 kosher grade) 0.400
Jeechem OP (Jeen) (Ethylhexyl palmitate) 4.000
Dissolvene Na2 (Akzo Nobel) (Disodium EDTA) 0.150
Jeechem ICS (Jeen) (Isocetyl stearate) 3.000
Velvesil Plus (Momentive) (Cyclopentasiloxane (and) C30-45 cetearyl dimethicone crosspolymer (and) PEG/PPG-20/23 dimethicone) 1.000
Phase E  
Glycerin 99.7% USP (Jeen)  2.100
Jeesil P45 (Jeen) (Polymethylsilsequioxane) 2.000
Jeechem BUGL (Jeen) (1,3-butylene glycol) 1.100
Phase F  
Jeecide CAP (Jeen) (Caprylyl glycol) 1.000
Y125 Liquid Caramel Color (Sethness) 0.0800
Mica BC WG (Jeen)  0.150

Procedure: Start by mixing Phase A ingredients together using an overhead prop mixer.  Disperse Phase B slowly into Phase A.  As the combined AB develops viscosity, add Phase C and mix well.  Pre-slurry Phase E ingredients together and set aside.  Add Phase D ingredients in the order listed in the formulation, mixing well between additions.  Add pre-slurried Phase E to the combined ABCD ingredients and mix well until homogenous.  Add Phase F ingredients in the order listed in the formulation, mixing well between additions.  Make sure the batch is uniform and smooth, homogenize if needed.  Adjust pH and make final property checks.

Formulation Properties: Appearance—off-white cream; Target pH—5.4; Target viscosity—65,000 cps @ 10 rpm using spindle #95 (T-E) on a Brookfield RVT Heliopath mode.

Green, Creative Formulating
Late in 2012, California’s climate law reached a milestone when the state auctioned its first carbon credits in the Cap & Trade program. This green, environmentally friendly program expects to raise between $500 million and $1 billion by selling carbon emission credits. The sale of these credits will fund green initiatives in California and encourage companies to reduce carbon emissions. Jeen International’s Jeesperse CPW technology enhances these efforts by reducing the heating and cooling requirement for manufacturing cosmetic products.3

The patented Jeesperse CPW technology has improved efficiencies in the plant and lab since 2009. The recent launch of the new, even more creative, patented Jeesperse ICE-T platform allows for creative efficiencies in formulating new textures and morphing existing textures into new products. The Jeesperse ICE-T platform takes its DNA from the previous Jeesperse CPW technology, but now includes the most frequently used emollients and aesthetic modifiers in the industry. 

In Formulations 1 and 2, we show Jeesperse ICE-T blends of butters, waxy emulsifiers and other traditional ingredients that can be used to quickly develop customized formulations. Formulation variations possible from this chassis can range from a gel/cream all the way up to body butters, depending upon the use-level of the product. The creative formulation process allows for drop-in of the Jeesperse ICE-T products that deliver multi-level benefits for texture development, enhanced stabilization and creation of unique aesthetic profiles. This innovation will allow formulators to create, modify or reformulate in a more efficient fashion than ever before.

What’s Next?
Jeen International is working on additional Jeesperse ICE-T platforms and derivative technologies that will allow for applications in body wash, shampoo and pressed powders.  Research is underway to utilize this technology as a cosmetic active delivery system and to help increase performance claims such as SPF boosting, transfer resistance and heat protection for hair.  Look for further Jeesperse ICE-T innovations from Jeen in 2013 and beyond. 

References

1. Wang SL, Flamberg A, Kikabhai T. 1999. “Select the Optimum Pour Point Depressant.” Hydrocarbon Processing 78:2.

2. Hemant PS, Kiranbala, Bharambe DP. 2008. “Performance Based Designing of Wax Crystal Growth Inhibitors.” Energy & Fuels 22 (6):3930–3938.

3. Mateu, J. 2011. “Carbon Footprint Reduced with Cold Process Waxes.” Personal Care Europe 87-89.More info: Jeen International, Tel: 973-439-1400; Email: info@jeen.com; Website: www.jeen.com
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