The annual meeting always enables the Society to honor its own with a variety of awards, including the Maison G. de Navarre Medal Award, the SCC’s highest honor, which was presented to Dr. Anthony Rawlings, director, AVR Consulting. He has more than 35 years of experience in R&D, has authored or co-authored more than 200 technical papers, book chapters and holds more than 50 patents.
Dr. Zoe Diana Draelos MD won the inaugural Florence Wall Women in Cosmetic Chemistry Award, honoring women’s scientific and leadership contributions to the cosmetics and personal care industry. The award is sponsored by Rodan + Fields. Draelos has authored 14 books, contributed chapters to 38 textbooks, written 78 posters and 541 published papers, served as principal investigator on 621 studies, delivered 350+ oral presentations, and served on or contributed to 38 editorial boards.
The 2019 Robert A. Kramer Lifetime Service Award went to Robert Y. Lochhead, PhD and Joseph P. Pavlichko (posthumously). For a list of all the award winners, see December issue of Happi.
Outgoing SCC President Kelly Dobos, who was a driving force in the creation of the Florence Wall Women in Cosmetic Chemistry Award, noted that the Society added more than 900 members in 2019 and hailed the strong lineup of scientific presentations during the Scientific Meeting. Leading off the podium presentations was the Frontier of Science Award lecture by Timothy Caulfield PhD, who posed the question, “Is Gywneth Paltrow wrong about everything?”
Besides working as a professor of health law and science policy at the University of Alberta, Caulfield has written more than 350 articles and book chapters on a variety of topics including stem cells, and research ethics. He also has two bestsellers, “The Cure for Everything: Untangling the Twisted Messages about Health, Fitness and Happiness” and that Paltrow tome, subtitled, “When celebrity culture and science clash.”
In an understatement, Caulfield noted that “we live in interesting times;” times when consumers rush to get vampire facials, which is not the smartest idea in an age of HIV; sell used tissues to inoculate people; drink urine to live longer; and even drink dog’s urine to clear up acne…seriously.
“How did we get here?” Caulfield asked, before urging the scientific community, in general, and those in the audience, specifically, to fight back.
“The internet creates a culture of untruths and misinformation. It is a polarization machine that promotes bias,” he charged.
He called on the scientific community to push back against social media using science-based, story-telling techniques.
“Get involved. Writing op-ed pieces can change opinion,” Caulfield insisted. “Call out BS! Speak up!”
Advances in CBD
Few topics have captured the imagination of marketing departments like CBD. In a standing-room-only session moderated by Yulia Park, James Baumgartner, Panacea Life Sciences, detailed results of his study using three preclinical pain models to determine the ability of CBD to reduce induced pain. According to Baumgartner, the results provide a foundation of evidence that pure CBD significantly reduces pain in various models. To evaluate CBD in a chronic pain setting, the Chung model of neuropathic pain was used on Sprague Dawley rats. Researchers concluded that while CBD at all concentrations tested did not produce any significant reduction in pain, on Day 5 of the test, significant reduction in measured pain was observed at 5mg/kg dose and the pain response was completely eliminated at CBD doses of 40mg/kg or higher.
“This demonstrates that CBD is able to reduce neuropathic pain with chronic, not acute, administration,” he said.
Using the The Brennan model of post-operative pain to study CBD’s ability to alleviate intense pain caused by surgical incision in rats, researchers reported that CBD alone, even at elevated doses is not effective at alleviating the pain induced. But rats that were dosed with CBD seven days prior to surgery lower doses of morphine. Finally, in a canine study involving various breeds and body weights with measured movement disorders, dogs were dosed with 5mg CBD in a fish oil-based formula. Researchers reported a 36% increase in movement or a decrease in pain.
“Overall, these results clearly demonstrate that cannabidiol is effective in treating various pain conditions,” said Baumgartner. “CBD does not show meaningful efficacy in strong pain models, but may be used with opiates at low doses to provide analgesia.”
Before marketers rush to roll out CBD-based pain management formulas, Martha Tate, PhD, Tate Science LLC, noted that CBD is new to the industry and therefore has little precedence.
“Making claims will require the input of multidisciplinary experts and must include substantial product and ingredient evaluations,” she observed. Specifically:
- Ingredient characteristics are evaluated by suppliers and reports are included with the ingredient purchase. But the ingredient’s contribution to the final product formulation and its continued efficacy is the responsibility of the manufacturer.
- Skin or hair product objective measurements may include instruments and expert evaluators. Instruments measure specific attributes such as moisture, color, softness, elasticity, and skin or hair surface topography. Trained graders may use visual or tactile clinical evaluations.
- Subjective measurements include consumer studies and sensory panels. In consumer perception claims, panelists are recruited from the population, use the products, and answer questions in a standardized way. Sensory panels are an established and proven method to evaluate products as a consumer would.
Insights on Hair
COSA Chair George of JPMS moderated a session on hair science. Farahdia Edouard, Croda, Inc., detailed her research on replenishing textured hair. She noted that textured, virgin African hair tended to lose a greater amount of unique proteins than European hair even in a mild aqueous extraction procedure. Application of a lye relaxer straightening treatment resulted in a distinct protein loss profile between the two hair types. A fluorescence microscopy study conducted with TRI Princeton demonstrated that when textured African hair in its virgin state is treated with a medium Mw keratin protein of approximately 3kDa, there is limited penetration, whereas relaxer damage promotes enhanced delivery of the protein throughout the cortex. Treating the hair with the keratin protein significantly recovered hair’s physical properties and restored strength to the damaged African hair.
“This type of keratin protein not only provides a benefit to the hair in terms of improving its strength, but also does not compromise the end aesthetic of the hair,” explained Edouard.
Coralie Alonso, Ashland Industries, detailed the development of novel hair care formulas using rheological fingerprinting. She noted that as the industry shifts toward natural-based chemistry, it becomes critical to develop signature textures and understand consumer application of rheological systems.
“Bringing new, efficient and reliable ways to the formulator to deliver a good sensory experience with each product will benefit the industry as well as the consumer,” said Alonso.
Large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) captures the textural expression perceived by consumers associated with the large and fast deformations during daily consumer application of hair care products. Alonso noted that the vast majority of hair conditioners are opaque, white liquids which are cues for a nourishing conditioner product, but formulators have options. LAOS characterization supported the creation of a transparent rinse-off conditioner, with no lamellar phase, which relies on hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) to build the right texture.
A session on color cosmetic innovations was moderated by Zhi Li. The session tapped into issues that formulators face in the multibillion-dollar beauty category, such as the challenges from rising demand for “natural” and “clean” cosmetics to crafting long-lasting color to pigment dispersion and technology.
Jane Hollenberg, JCH Consulting, opened the session with a look at how terms such as “natural,” “organic” and “clean” cosmetics are confusing. Consumer understanding of what these three key phrases mean is as varied as current definitions used by marketers. Workhorse chemistries that have delivered the performance and aesthetic attributes consumers have come to expect, have come under fire by regulators and NGOs. In addition, marketing departments want to tout beauty products that are deemed natural, but without sacrificing performance attributes. It has made formulator’s job more complicated today, insists Hollenberg.
“When you are formulating, you must be clear on what claims the marketer you work for wants to make,” she told the audience. She presented an overview of marketing claims, definitions, regulations and formulation challenges. Hollenberg started with mineral makeup—a powder foundation consisting of pigments and mineral fillers.
“Technically, and by dictionary definition, a mineral is a natural substance, whereas the inorganic color additives are synthetic, but the story was successful,” Hollenberg noted about the popularity of these products brought about by Bare Minerals and others. She addressed challenges around specific ingredients and product performance and aesthetics. For example, she said that while formulators can surface treat pigments and fillers with natural or organic materials to make mineral makeup less drying (such as lauroyl lysine, acyl amino acids, lecithin, or jojoba esters), the treated formula is no longer strictly mineral. Hollenberg noted that for many consumers, emulsion foundations, which offer the convenience of an emollient vehicle as well as color, are better. These emulsion foundations—particularly those now known as BB, CC, and DD creams—have enjoyed a resurgence.
Hollenberg also looked at water-in-silicone emulsions, which have excellent blending and wear characteristics. While volatile silicones (particularly cyclics) have been the major components of the external phases of these formulations for their light, non-greasy skin feel combined with exceptional slip and slow evaporation and ability to offer a natural-looking, long-wearing finish, cyclics have been classified by ECHA as persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic in the environment. Linear silicone alternatives have been offered as substitute, but silicones are synthetic and are also among the classes of compounds considered objectionable by many NGOs, she noted.
According to Hollenberg, silicone glycol copolymer emulsifiers are not under direct regulatory scrutiny—but silicones and alkoxylated compounds are often cited by NGOs and marketing campaigns as ingredients to avoid in cosmetics.
The second presentation was on the chemistry of long-lasting color cosmetics. Hy Bui of L’Oréal zeroed in on the challenges that come in building foundation, lipstick and mascara. Formulators must balance adhesion (film formers), the wear of color (pigments), and sensory attributes (fillers) while also taking into account the differences in the three substrates—lips, skin and hair (eyelashes)—on which the products are used.
“Clean removability is a challenge with long-wear products,” he insisted. For example, he noted that lipstick must be “food-proof,” but also comfortable to wear and easy to remove.
At the conclusion of his talk, Bui provided a touching moment when he thanked Robert Lochhead, who was in the audience. Bui met Dr. Lochhead 25 years ago while at the University of Southern Mississippi; at the time Bui was a new refugee to the US. “He saved me,” Dr. Bui said about Lochhead, who had asked him to work in the lab at USM. Other presentations included “Pigment Dispersion Characterization Using a Novel Three-Step Method Validation for An Effective Dispersion,” by Jaemi Ong of Croda, Inc and “Creating a Universal Red,” by Stephanie Biagini of BASF Colors & Effects.
Green and Sustainable Formulations
The final NextGen session of the 73rd Annual Meeting was Green/Sustainable Formulations,” which was moderated by Paolo Giacomoni. Presentations were made by Inolex, Honeywell and LipotecUSA as well as a professor from Manhattan College.
In “Understanding Biobased Cationic Amino Lipids: Effects of Amino Acid Structure on Liquid Crystalline Phase Behavior in Conditioning Formulations,” Brittany Pease of Inolex covered brassicyl valinate esylate (BVE) and brassicyl isoleucinate esylate (BIE), which are 100% biobased cationic amino lipids derived from the esterification of brassica alcohol (BA) with the amino acids L-valine and L-isoleucine, respectively. As cationic amphiphilic molecules, BVE and BIE function as hair and skin conditioning agents, emulsifiers and structuring agents for the formulation of liquid crystalline (LC) systems when combined with nonionic amphiphiles, such as fatty alcohols or glyceryl esters. The impact of the difference in their respective structures was examined on microscopic and macroscopic levels to develop a mechanistic understanding of cationic amino lipid behavior and to relate that behavior to observed differences in formulation properties and hair conditioning performance. According to Pease, the difference of one methylene group leads to pronounced differences in the LC phase behavior and corresponding hair conditioning performance of cationic amino lipids. BVE was observed to form lamellar LC phases over a broader range of concentrations and temperatures compared to BIE, which she attributed to the more compact head group of BVE and correspondingly greater critical packing parameter value compared to BIE. The enhanced ability of BVE to form lamellar LC phases translates to improved formulation stability and hair conditioning performance over BIE.
“Enabling New Solutions in Personal Care with HFO Technology,” was the topic of a presentation from Honeywell’s Barry Setiawa, who presented a look at CFC and HFC replacements based on hydrofluoroolefins, a halo-olefin chemistry. Two of these molecules that are available for cosmetic applications, tetrafluoro propene and chlorotrifluoropropene, have ultra-low global warming potential, are non-ozone depleting, and have low maximum incremental reactivity.
The final presentations of the session were: “Subcritical Water Extraction; A green and Sustainable Extraction Technology,” presented by Sylesh Venkataraman of Lioptec USA, followed by “Microstructure Engineering and Formulation Design of Biosurfactant Based Products,” presented by Samiul Amin, an associate professor in the chemical engineering department at Manhattan College, Rivderdale, NY. He provided insight into what happens when SLES is replaced by a biosurfactant.